Monday, September 30, 2019

Cats vs. Dogs as Pets

The most popular pets in today’s society are cats and dogs. There has always been a debate for both sides. It’s a matter of opinion to which animal is superior. This essay is going to compare and contrast the two animals. One of the most obvious similarities is that cats belong to the feline family. Cats are independent and require less attention from their owners. Dogs belong to the canine family. Dogs are pack animals; this means they require more attention by their owners so they don’t become depressed and lonely.Looking at both animals, they both have different needs, habits and attitudes. Cats need less grooming because they clean themselves. Cats use a litter box and don’t have to be trained like dogs to use the bathroom outside. Cat litter can be expensive also. Dogs need to have baths, be brushed and taken care of when they use the bathroom. The cost for food is more expensive for dogs. The habits of both animals are very different and should be co nsidered by the owner. Dogs, if allowed, will share a meal with their owner. They can also share furniture such as bed, recliner, and couches.They like to be petted and go for walks. Dogs bark and can bother neighbors. Dogs nail care has to be done by a veterinarian which can cost you. Cats do to but don’t have to be walked. Cats can be trained though to walk on a leash. Cat’s meow, purr, growl, and hiss. Cats may scratch furniture and are very hard to train them not to do so. Cats can be declawed to deter the tearing up of furniture. The other difference between cats and dogs is that cats are nocturnal and dogs are daytime animals. The attitudes between the animals can be very different.Dogs can be loving, loyal, protective and do tricks if trained. Some dogs are really good with kids and some are not so you might want to look into which breed of dogs are good with children. Cats on the other hand can be unpredictable and scratch children. They can be sweet in nature and snuggle up with you. Cats enjoy playing with simple toys such as; paper balls, toilet roll cardboard, mouse toys and yarn. Cats don’t have to be entertained by their owners because they are independent animals. Sometimes cats can bring you surprises such as birds, mice, moles. They even chase and kill flies.Some cats may be shy and skittish around other people so they like to hide in different places throughout the house. There are many reasons we choose to have a pet. One reason may be to relieve stress. Some pet lovers might choose to get a dog to protect their house. Some prefer to own a cat instead of a dog and vice versa. Older people prefer cats for the companionship. Younger couples usually choose a puppy for their children to play with. It is also good to research all the options you have that will suit you and your family. Whether you choose a cat or dog you should always consider they both have different needs, habits and attitudes.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

William Wordsworth & Romantic Poetry

William Wordsworth and romantic Poetry In Wordsworth’s â€Å"We are seven†, characteristics of nature was included because beginning on line 41 the little cottage girl says† My stockings there I often knit, My ‘kerchief there I hem; And there upon the ground I sit- I sit and sing to them,† this stanza shows how the girl enjoys the therapeutic quality of sitting outside by the church-yard tree with her brother and sister.The beautiful girl also discusses how she is one out of seven, even when she is be told she is really one of five. Her debate with the writer is very spiritual and depicts the supernatural characteristic that her dead siblings are still apart of her world. This poem can be best categorized as a Common Life concept because the little cottage girl is expressing her opinion to the other freely in a very simple way and she is in harmony with the environment she is in. Lines written in early spring† contains the characteristic of bound less aspirations with birds being inserted around line 13 and they represent how free they are, the birds are not bounded by the limitations that we have as humans. Wordsworth also glorified the common place by making every little flower, twig, bird, and even air sound better than what the average person would describe them. He seems to be writing about an overflow of powerful feelings by appreciating every little detail in the scene and discussing his sweet mood yet grieving about â€Å"what man has made of man. Wordsworth had a spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings in â€Å"I wandered lonely as a Cloud†; he recollected in tranquility of the stars, daffodils, and waves, which could also be considered glorification of the common place. One could also establish a characteristic of nature in this poem when the author’s heart â€Å"dances with the Daffodils,† at the end of the poem. Wordsworth was discussing a â€Å"poet’s goal† in this poem, enj oying life without a violent stimulus, and can be proven on line 15 with â€Å"A Poet could not help but be gay. In â€Å"Elegiac Stanzas,† Wordsworth discusses the supernatural by mentioning the Elysian quiet, and has an overflow of emotions. For example, â€Å"a sea that could not cease to smile; on tranquil land, beneath a sky of bliss,†is an excerpt that makes the author happy and tranquil. Once again we can say that Wordsworth had an overflow of feelings and emotions, as a Wordsworth concept, and he wrote real language with vivid sensation in this piece.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

How to Become a Lawyer

A lot comes to the mind of an upcoming high school graduate, especially what that person wants to do for a living. My future career is that of a lawyer. Granted becoming a lawyer takes a lot of work and effort. Once I have attended undergrad and finish law school I then can become a lawyer. Becoming a lawyer has many advantages, I can either argue for the applicant or defendant. My future career, a lawyer, is without a doubt a long-term goal that I’ve dreamed of becoming since I was in 3rd grade. Benefits are really great and I help make society a better place to live in. It will be a chore, that’s why I’m trying to get the right mind set now before it’s too late. The growth potential for being a lawyer all depends on my education and how far I want to go. Many people get into general law and work with a firm for years without moving up, but if I work hard at building up a client base then living is easy. Continuing education is also a good move for this potential job opportunity, I can become qualified for a more wide-ranging field of practice. The Bureau of Labor Statistics converse that now, to add in education, most states and jurisdictions â€Å"require future lawyers to complete a juris doctor (J. D. ) degree from a law school accredited by the American Bar Association. † First, of course I must graduate high school then I have to get a bachelor's degree, and I take the LSAT test. Afterwards I must go to 3-4 years of law school and finally, I must take the bar exam; it's usually 7-8 years after high school. The costs all depends on the school that I pick. For going to public schools, I’d have to expect costs to be around $100,000 for tuition, housing, food, books, test fees, etc. Because of my dad being a retired Marine, most of this stuff will come free, that will help be less of a detriment to this situation. The lowest-level law school costs about $30,000 a year and prices are raising quickly too, so it'll only go up from there. This all is just stressful, and the work is 24/7. The pace all depends on how I feel about this work; in the end, it all feels good to have accomplished such a mission. Legal careers guide Sally Kane states for becoming a lawyer â€Å"is an enormous undertaking in terms of time commitment and financial investment. † Basically in the end, it’s all money well spent. It takes time though, therefore I should learn as much about the profession as possible to fill that time. I’ve never met a lawyer who wasn’t moral, honest, connected with their clients, or prepared for deadlines. One must be highly educated and have fast thinking skills. A persons mind must be set to be quick to analyze a situation and decide the best outcome to a situation in order to become a wonderful lawyer. These type of work values, can be really great to have for a great cost and time well spent. In addition to spending things, I’ll be able to spend a lot more with the salary I’m able to get $113,310 every year. A source, ONET OnLine, indicates that lawyers median wages are $54. 48 an hour, project growth from 2010-2020 will be an average of 10%-19%. The projected job openings from 2010-2020 are 212,000 and the employment rate for lawyers updated in 2010 are 728,000. The work environment for lawyers is either in the law library, in the office or in court. Court hours for most lawyers are typically regular business hours, with a one-hour lunch break. The study hall, law libraries etc. are all very helpful necessities. David R. Johnson, author of Serving Justice with Conversational Law simply states â€Å"The existence of libraries of legal materials required professionals to help lay clients read and understand increasingly complex rules and precedents. † One is usually working up to 11 hours a day, most times weekends as well. A majority works full time, to raise the hourly and annual wages these are the prices it takes to make big bucks. To conclude my reason to shoot for my dream career, the bonus is I have the opportunity to save people’s lives, and bring justice to people that deserve it. A lot comes in the mind of a high school graduate, especially what that person wants to do for a living. A lawyer is something I feel I am capable of doing. Whether it being extensive or lengthy working hours, I find it something I am capable of striving for. The long term reward isn’t just the rather large amount of pay, but the fact that I have accomplished what I always wanted to do and that I’m happy doing it.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Staffing Organizations Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words - 1

Staffing Organizations - Essay Example Initial Phase Promotion It is concerned with the shifting of one employee to a higher rank, status, facilities and income (Bennett, 2002). Second Phase Recruitment Process (External) Stage /Phase Advertisement The usual method of the management is to advertise about the job vacancy models for a higher and junior level post. The advertisement is usually published in the newspapers, magazines, periodicals, journals etc (Kot & Leat, 2008). Initial Phase Internet Recruitment One of the most innovative methods of recruitment would be when the company posts their job vacancies in their official websites or through online recruitment agencies. These online agencies match their requirements with the potential of the candidate. Second Phase Educational Institutions Campus recruitment is one of the newest methods of recruitment where the management recruits through the veracious reputed educational institutions. Third Phase 1. Communication Message for Applicants The coffee shop would be hirin g candidates for the position of the financial accountant, point of sale system and servers. The suitable communication message for the recruitment procedure of the coffee shop would be as follows: Job Description Engaged in analysis of the financial accounts. Responsible for collection cash at the point of sale systems Desired Profile Should have proper numerical knowledge and communication skills. Should have excellent communication and interpersonal skills. Experience 0-2 Years Role Accounts Education Graduate in any discipline Compensation $17500 Per Annum Location Maryland, Chicago and Texas Functional Area Accounts, Retail and Business Development Job Description Servers Desired Profile Candidate with excellent communication skills in English and good interpersonal skills Experience 1-2 Years Role Human resource Management Education Graduate Skills Compensation $ 200000 Per Annum Location Chicago, Texas , California, New York Functional Area Human Resource Management 2. Commun ication Medium for Recruitment Procedure Although, there are various types of communication methods for recruitment procedure the fundamental communication medium required in this context would be the combination of physical and mechanical media. Physical media like department and excusive meetings would be helpful in case of internal recruitment in the coffee shop. Departmental meetings among all the branches would be held which would focus on communicating about the various vacancies in the company. This is one of the most important communication medium which helps in the dissemination of recruitment message clearly. Physical media would be used only in the case of internal recruitment procedure. Mechanical media encompasses email, weekly letters, personal letters and other social media websites. These communication medium would be used for communicating about the vacancies in the organization and also facilitate the recruitment procedure smoothly (Langenegger, Mahler & Staffelbac h, 2010). These medium would be used for both internal and external recruitment methods. Each of these communication medium have different impact, like email and social media webs

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Ethnic Groups and Multiracial Identity Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Ethnic Groups and Multiracial Identity - Essay Example Racial stereotyping and crime in the society is partly attributed to the poverty levels in the society among people from a particular race. The Senator should address the issue of education and in particular the low enrollment levels and high drop out rates from school by children from particular races. The ability to attain good jobs can only be related to the ability to secure good education and training hence members of the African American community have been segregated in employment due to lack of enough education. High unemployment rates among the youth are the leading causes of crime like drug peddling and violent robberies hence the Senator should ensure youth receive property education. The Senator should also increase the rehabilitation facilities for drug patients and the correctional facilities for petty offenders. Lack of counseling and support services have increased the crime levels in the neighborhood. The Senator should work towards racial integration by establishing cultural centers and community centers where each racial group can celebrate and preserve their unique culture and traditions. The Senator should consider increasing the welfare benefits to the poor citizens. The Senator should consider the issue of taxation where he can advocate for reduction in the tax rates for the people whose income is not adequate for housing and other basic needs. The Senator should increase the housing provision facilities. Question 3 people of power: law, Supreme Court and congress Dr Friedman asserts that people lobby and assert pressure on their government for many social changes. He continues by saying the legal justice system is the product of people demand. The society shapes the legal framework and must live within the framework. The legal system reflects the power structure and authority in the society. He believes that the wealth and power influence the making and execution of the laws where big corporations and rich people run the country. He beli eves the middle class can be powerful but its keeps being divided and fragmented. He believes the minorities and civil rights are protected by the law but our ideals affect the policies which we pursue. Laws are made by legislatures enacted through popular vote and rulings are given by the Supreme Court hence want counts are the strength of the pillars holding the systems. The Supreme Court was established by Article 3 of the US constitution which did not explain the clear duties and powers of the Court. American Constitution denied African Americans citizenship. In 1865, the Thirteenth Amendment and Civil Rights Act of 1866 gave all citizens equal rights and ended slavery. Citizenships were granted to Non-white Americas in 1868 where no State was required to make laws that deprive any person of life, property without due law process being followed. African Americans were granted the right to vote in 1870 but on criteria that they could read the Constitution provisions fluently with out any error. In 1854, the Supreme Court in the case of Scott V. Sandford, ruled that Dred Scott was still a slave despite having lived in â€Å"free states† for several years hence he was the property of the owner. In the same case, Justice Taney ruled that Scott had no the capacity to bring the case to court since he was not a U.S citizen. The most historic Supreme Court ruling on race was delivered by Justice Thurgood Marshall who was the first

Make a title Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Make a title - Essay Example In essence, child spanking is a shortcut to child disciplining which is not effective. Child spanking does more harm and little, if any, good. To begin with, spanking gives a wrong example to children. In disciplining a child, the approach should be positive. Children learn from what they observe their parents do. As a result therefore, when a child is spanked, the lesson learnt is that violence would solve problems. It may be perceived as a mode of bullying. The child could view it that, it would be right for an older person to hit a younger one. It would thus be dangerous for the child to grow under that perception. The parent in spanking aims to correct an action that is viewed as an act lower to the acceptable disciplinary standards. To the child, it would be another message sent. In most cases, it is notable that many mothers are of the view that the child should not be spanked. At times however, their child would engage in an act and they prompt to spank them. The spanking could thus be an act of low self-control. Now, is that the message that should be delivered to the child? One characteristic of discipline is self -control. It is what the child should learn. However, under spanking, the lesson is all different. Rob Walters’ states that, â€Å"When your child misbehaves or acts in ways that are defiant, inappropriate, or even dangerous, you want to show him that this behavior is unacceptable and needs to change. Spanking may seem like a direct and effective way to do that, but it also delivers other messages you dont want to be sent† (Walters) The relationship between the parent or guardian and the child is affected significantly. The trust after spanking would be lost. The child upon being spanked questions the love that her spanker has for her or him. The foundation for trust between the two is thus shaken. The child is frustrated and angry. The feelings would progress to the teenage

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Industrial Relations in Australia Research Paper

Industrial Relations in Australia - Research Paper Example The introduced reforms in the country has constitutionally permitted the court to settle the disputes and issues relevant to the 'wages and conditions of employment for the nation's employees' (Giudice, 2006), such reforms are expected to generate economic effect with reference to the 'decisions and its relationship with industry protection policies which would endure until the closing decades of the century' (Giudice, 2006). The significant feature of the Industrial Relation system practiced in Australia has been its collective system, the industrial relation system has 'provided legal recognition for trade unions which, once registered had the capacity to act in industrial disputes in their own right on behalf of their members present and future', the system has further authorized the industrial units and the trade unions to perform on 'strong egalitarian foundation' (Giudice, 2002).  As per the regulations of the government with reference to the industrial relations, the parties , unions, and employers have been encouraged to file their grievances in the Court for early and peaceful settlement, and avoid any malpractices which are expected to hamper the industrial activities and growth, the industrial units have been barred from different practices of strikes and lockouts, and have regarded such practices as unlawful. Such reforms and regulations have deeply influenced the industrial relations of Australia, and integrations of all these regulations and combination have been unusual. The Australian laws have further incorporated certain variations in the labor laws of its states, and the major concern of the regulations has been 'the bargaining process'. The understanding of the Australian legislative towards the Industrial relations have been extremely different, 'this was because the rationale for Australian unique system was that the strike was to be replaced with conciliation and arbitration carried out under the auspices of a tribunal with a responsibil ity to protect the public interest' (Giudice, 2006). After the strike calls were legitimized in Australia, it was observed that such practices were never adopted because the unions and the industrialists had the common understanding that such practices will never address the concerns of the unions towards the employers, and neither will it benefit any of the party. The country has introduced statutory rights, the purpose of which is to offer protection to the individual employees from expected or unexpected 'unfair or discriminatory termination' (Raymond, 1970) of their services by the employers. Australian laws with reference to the Industrial Relations are required to go through process of conciliation, the prevalent issues have to be initially resolved through conciliation efforts, and any harsh technique and forcible approach has to be avoided and discouraged, and any of the party found guilty of such an act will be regarded as guilty on the grounds of offensive approach.

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Market Entry Report for Petcoats.com Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Market Entry Report for Petcoats.com - Essay Example Recently, the company received local coverage on BBC East Midlands followed by a favorable article on the company by Daily Mail. Following the two incidents of coverage, there was an avalanche of activity on the company’s website leading to the crash of the website. This event convinced the manager to explore the possibility of venturing into two foreign markets – the USA and France. This paper constitutes a report to the director of Petcoats.com on the viability of entering the US market and how best to approach the market. The report is organized into three parts: the first part investigates the US pet market, the second analyses a number of possible market entry strategies before proposing the strategy the author feels is the most appropriate. The third part of the report explores the various ways through which Petcoats.com can communicate with American pet. Finally, the author concludes by making a number of recommendations. In the 1970s, 64 million American households owned at least a pet. By 2012, that figure had more than tripled 164 million households – this figure translated to 62% of American households (The Humane Society of the United States, 2014). As has always been the case, the dog and the cat are the two most favored pets. In 2012, 47% of all households owned at least a dog, translating to a total of 83.3 million pet dogs. In that same year, dog owners spent an average $231 in a year on routine veterinary visits. The pet cat population stood at 95.6 million and on average, the cat owner spent $193 on routine visits to the veterinary.

Monday, September 23, 2019

Why Quit Smoking Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Why Quit Smoking - Essay Example Recent studies about tobacco smoking have revealed that it is a leading cause of lung cancer and other respiratory diseases. For the record, these lung cancer and other respiratory diseases were virtually unknown up until the surge of cigarette sales during World War II. Now lung cancer is considered as one of the leading killer diseases of the 21st century, killing an estimate of 3 million people around the world annually. Millions of people still continue to smoke tobacco despite its harmful effects to their health. But there are some smokers who want to quit their ugly habit, these are those smokers who have suddenly realized the negative effects of smoking and have decided to lead on a healthier nicotine free life through the help of various quitting methods. These individuals themselves have decided not just to quit smoking for themselves but also for the welfare of other smokers who wishes to kick the bad habit out of their system. Discussed herein are the dangers of tobacco smoking along with the various ways in which a smoker can quit this ugly habit in exchange for a healthier and happier life. Cigars and cigarettes are the primary sources of carcinogenic (cancer-causing) smoke. What distinguishes the two is that cigars are typically made from a single tobacco leaf without any wrappings or filter added to it while cigarettes are smaller versions of cigars. A typical cigarette is made up of tobacco leaf shreds wrapped in a special paper attached to a filter on one end. While cigarettes are widely available, cigars are usually sold in specialty stores equipped with humidors to preserve those. Differences aside both are still major sources of carcinogens and other substances that pose major health threats for humans Smokers have given various reasons on why they smoke. Many smoke for the sake of smoking. Some smoke to alleviate their self-destructive while others smoke because they are addicted to nicotine. Other smokers are bit more casual, saying that they smoke because they want to lessen the stress they experience in their daily lives. Whatever the reason is, most smokers will stick on the habit for the rest of their lives while developing various smoking related symptoms and diseases. A significant number of smokers on the other hand, have realized the various negative health and environmental effects of smoking and thus decided to quit smoking. Cigarette smoke inhaled by the smokers themselves is called mainstream smoke and it is reported to increase the risk of many types of cancer, which includes lip cancer, oral cancer, cancer of the esophagus, cancer of the pancreas, cancer of the larynx , cancer of the lungs; uterine and cervix cancers, cancer of the urinary bladder; and kidney cancer. On the other hand, smoke inhaled by non-smokers is called second-hand smoke. The effects of second-hand smoke seems to be much worse than mainstream smoke, the U.S. Surgeon General has updated some evidences showing that second-hand smoke causes heart disease and lung cancer in adults while it also causes sudden infant death syndrome and respiratory problems in infants and children respectively. It also found out that there is no "risk-free" level of second hand that exists; even the briefest exposure to secondhand smoke is enough to increase that risk of acquiring cardiovascular and respiratory diseases in adults. The only solution to this

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Rich culture Essay Example for Free

Rich culture Essay Japan is known for its rich culture. Among its many customs and traditions, music is considered to be one of the most essential parts of its culture. The Japanese’ passion for music, particularly traditional folk song music, continues to be a part of their daily lives. Despite the fact that their musical culture has gone through evolution as a result of change in lifestyles and mass media development, they still look at music as an important part of their heritage. For the Japanese, folk music is a medium through which they are able to express their inner feelings, ideas and thoughts. It is also through these songs that they are able to relate their experiences in life and the many ways that they deal with them. These songs depict their daily ways of living such as farming, fishing, mining, and even religious events, to mention a few. To date, traditional folk songs still exist in the different provinces in Japan. It is common among the older generations and sung mostly for recreational purposes. Harich-Schneider believes that because of the influences brought about by Western music and global modernization, Japan’s traditional folk songs are no longer as popular as it was in the ancient times. Over the years, fans and professional folk song singers have decreased. However, the tradition is sustained not only in art music but in the rich variety of folk traditions all over Japan (E. Harich-Schneider: 1973). Just like the Japanese, music plays a vital role in the American culture particularly in the lives of Native Americans. Their music also depicts their regional traditions and customs, history as well as the education of tribes in North America. Rooted in the folk music of many countries such as Ireland, England, Africa, and Scotland, their folk songs introduced the birth of American folk dances such as the buck dance and square dance. Although still dependent on each of North America region’s tradition, their folk songs have developed and taken numerous regional styles especially in the kind of instruments used. Each region still maintains some of the more popular folk songs despite the differences in repertoire and style. Contrary to the perception that traditional folk songs are now unpopular among the Americans, they are actually still alive and well in many parts of the country. Musicians and bands all over the nation are putting great efforts to continue the folk songs tradition. One of these includes the establishment of folk music schools that provide instruction in old-time music. In California, there are summer camps for children and adults as well as families that offer many different concepts of folk music instruction. These programs, which are also available in other US states, saw an increase in people wanting to learn folk music. It can be noted that the Americans are committed to keep this unique tradition alive. Despite the thousands of songs and tunes that have evolved over the years, American folk musicians still heavily rely on this tradition and learn new folk songs. As has been the tradition, folk song writers aim to engage the listeners and evoke their emotions just like how the older counterparts did many years ago. The American traditional folk songs will continue to evolve for as long as there is music. Because it is the sound of the people, it will go on telling tales of their daily lives, the challenges they faced as well as the history of their struggle and triumph in the country, albeit in a more modern fashion. Hence, it can be stated that while both Japan and America put value in their traditions, the latter seems to enjoy folk songs more as they have implemented ways to keep this custom alive not only for the benefit of today’s generation but for the future, as well. On the Taiko drummers, it is indeed an artistic demonstration of superb blending of stick work during performances. Exhilarating energy and amazing speed during Taiko drumming is required. Similarly, percussion instruments such as drums and flutes also occupy an important role in the music of Native Americans. Like the Taiko drums, Native American drums are also huge and played by a group of individuals. The action required when playing these drums is high and often requires great strength. References: E. Harich-Schneider, A History of Japanese Music (1973). http://www. ctmsfolkmusic. org/about/programs/MusicInSchools. asp Japan is known for its rich culture. Among its many customs and traditions, music is considered to be one of the most essential parts of its culture. The Japanese’ passion for music, particularly traditional folk song music, continues to be a part of their daily lives. Despite the fact that their musical culture has gone through evolution as a result of change in lifestyles and mass media development, they still look at music as an important part of their heritage. For the Japanese, folk music is a medium through which they are able to express their inner feelings, ideas and thoughts. It is also through these songs that they are able to relate their experiences in life and the many ways that they deal with them. These songs depict their daily ways of living such as farming, fishing, mining, and even religious events, to mention a few. To date, traditional folk songs still exist in the different provinces in Japan. It is common among the older generations and sung mostly for recreational purposes. Harich-Schneider believes that because of the influences brought about by Western music and global modernization, Japan’s traditional folk songs are no longer as popular as it was in the ancient times. Over the years, fans and professional folk song singers have decreased. However, the tradition is sustained not only in art music but in the rich variety of folk traditions all over Japan (E. Harich-Schneider: 1973). Just like the Japanese, music plays a vital role in the American culture particularly in the lives of Native Americans. Their music also depicts their regional traditions and customs, history as well as the education of tribes in North America. Rooted in the folk music of many countries such as Ireland, England, Africa, and Scotland, their folk songs introduced the birth of American folk dances such as the buck dance and square dance. Although still dependent on each of North America region’s tradition, their folk songs have developed and taken numerous regional styles especially in the kind of instruments used. Each region still maintains some of the more popular folk songs despite the differences in repertoire and style. Contrary to the perception that traditional folk songs are now unpopular among the Americans, they are actually still alive and well in many parts of the country. Musicians and bands all over the nation are putting great efforts to continue the folk songs tradition. One of these includes the establishment of folk music schools that provide instruction in old-time music. In California, there are summer camps for children and adults as well as families that offer many different concepts of folk music instruction. These programs, which are also available in other US states, saw an increase in people wanting to learn folk music. It can be noted that the Americans are committed to keep this unique tradition alive. Despite the thousands of songs and tunes that have evolved over the years, American folk musicians still heavily rely on this tradition and learn new folk songs. As has been the tradition, folk song writers aim to engage the listeners and evoke their emotions just like how the older counterparts did many years ago. The American traditional folk songs will continue to evolve for as long as there is music. Because it is the sound of the people, it will go on telling tales of their daily lives, the challenges they faced as well as the history of their struggle and triumph in the country, albeit in a more modern fashion. Hence, it can be stated that while both Japan and America put value in their traditions, the latter seems to enjoy folk songs more as they have implemented ways to keep this custom alive not only for the benefit of today’s generation but for the future, as well. On the Taiko drummers, it is indeed an artistic demonstration of superb blending of stick work during performances. Exhilarating energy and amazing speed during Taiko drumming is required. Similarly, percussion instruments such as drums and flutes also occupy an important role in the music of Native Americans. Like the Taiko drums, Native American drums are also huge and played by a group of individuals. The action required when playing these drums is high and often requires great strength. References: E. Harich-Schneider, A History of Japanese Music (1973). http://www. ctmsfolkmusic. org/about/programs/MusicInSchools. asp

Saturday, September 21, 2019

The Growth And Decline Of Bebop Media Essay

The Growth And Decline Of Bebop Media Essay Jazz music has existed for nearly 100 years producing many subgenres of music and evolving styles along the way; starting with Ragtime in the late 1890s early 1920s, moving on to the prominence of the big band, to the syncopated feel of Swing (that led to the mainstream popularity of Jazz); during the 1930s. These progressions in Jazz led to the formation of a new subgenre, Bebop. Swing music brought two main developments to the Jazz genre; firstly throwing Jazz into the limelight, and secondly becoming a popular type of Jazz music people could dance to. However, the conformity of Swing constrained Musicians freedom to experiment and gain personal acclaim through the opportunity to play solo passages. The frustration this led some Jazz musicians to branch out and develop a music genre known as Bebop. This new style of Jazz (named Bebop but often referred to as bop or Rebop); emerged in the main, from Swing bands around the 1940s. The music placed larger emphasis on technique, speed and complex harmonies than swing; making it almost impossible to dance to which was the intention of the musicians who wanted their music to be appreciated through listening. Despite this causing much controversy, musicians were content with the longer solo time and smaller band sizes this style offered. Historically, Bebop is referred to as the first modern Jazz style originating in New York, through such artists as Charlie Parker, Thelonious Monk, Dizzy Gillespie, Kenny Clarke and Charlie Christian. The freedom of this style soon attracted other musicians drawn to its complexity, lack of structure and very experimental style Musicians often used different types of ornamentation to aid the complex melodies and harmonies. Features such as comping, sliding, parallel octaves (often borrowed from piano by guitar), improvisation and emphasis on the 3rd and 7th notes of a chord, were all common features of Bebop. 2. The rise of Bebop Bebop music, whose roots are founded in Swing, began to emerge in the mid 1940s when musicians became frustrated with swing and began working on a new, more technical type of Jazz. Its growth and development continued until around 1955. Aimed at destabilising swing music and excluding the less talented, white musicians that had latched onto what had once been a black innovation; bebop was seen as a chaotic revolution in the Jazz genre. In his book, Jazz 101, Szwed states that, To non-jazz fans or swing devotees, bop was a musical affront, a deliberate provocation, a scandal.3 pg161 Another contributing factor to the rise of Bebop was the commercialisation of swing music and its increasing status as the Pop music of America4 pg162 when it had previously been seen as more ethnic, alternative type of music. This commercialisation led to Swing becoming more focussed on pleasing mainstream audiences and making money. Bop originated in New York as artists who were already playing large shows in the city would often find smaller venues to practice and refine the more technical aspects of the music. Bars and clubs that were often too small for the dancing encouraged by swing were perfect for the groups of 4-6 musicians needed for a Bebop combo. One of the more famous venues for the development of Bebop was Mintons playhouse; where many jam sessions took place involving renowned musicians and some of the most famous Bebop music was played. 3. The influences leading to the evolution of Bebop Political/Economic/Social During this time in history a number of political, social and economic factors can be seen as influential and relevant to the ways in which Jazz music evolved. Firstly, racism and a lack of civil rights had a significant impact on black African American communities and black musicians were no exception. The majority of black musicians struggled to profit in the music industry and White musicians were alleged to have frequently stolen black musicians ideas. Furthermore, many black musicians were prevented from performing concerts or recording their music. Secondly, World War II had a significant impact on Jazz as a whole due to musicians that played in big bands being drafted into the army. Thirdly, the economic depression during this time made life hard. Many families did not have enough money to live and feed themselves. There were frequent riots in major cities, led by black people revolting against their terrible living conditions and unjust treatment. In contrast, increasing industrialism and mass production significantly reduced prices of products such as radios and cars. Most households owned a radio which made Jazz Music more accessible to the mainstream including young, impressionable artists who were able to listen to their idols. Musician Preference As previously mentioned, one of the largest contributing factors to the growth of Bebop music was musicians frustration with swing and big bands. Despite the generic success of swing music through its easy melodies and dance like feel, many artists felt unfulfilled when playing it. There were constraints on what they could play with only a few musicians having the chance to solo for short periods. Many performers believed their music should be appreciated through listening rather than dancing. Skilled and experienced musicians wanted to exclude amateur musicians joining in with jam sessions and thus invented more elaborate, complex ways of playing that only professional musicians could accomplish. What changed? The developments from Swing to Bebop Band sizes Bebop was seen as a more collaborative and intimate type of music than Swing with bands consisting of only 4-6 musicians; thus allowing for greater cohesion between musicians and more time dedicated to individuals soloing. In addition, the musicians would often play off one another trading fourths, which involved the soloist exchanging a 4 bar progression with another musician or the drummer. This was very engaging to audiences. Bop became music for the elite rather than the masses and was associated with more accomplished and skilled musicians. Chances for soloing Due to smaller band sizes, Jazz musicians were given longer sections for soloing; including bassists and drummers which was very appealing to musicians who had previously been playing simple beats or chords in the background. The band would play a melody before individual musicians would solo over the songs chord progression, making the melody secondary, with a greater emphasis on solos. Instruments and Rhythm The rise of Bebop music saw the end of rhythm guitar and clarinet. The typical big band size of 10 or more musicians was reduced to 4-6, and often did not include more than one of each instrument. A typical Bop combo would consist of drums, double bass, piano and either a guitar, trumpet or saxophone. Rhythm guitar was only used for accompanying another instrument during its solo, when other musicians would be playing a complex melody or head in unison. Bassists would play a walking bass line that consists of a mixture of scale tones (arpeggios or chromatic runs) that outline the chord progression of the song. Drummers relied less on the kick drum and more on the cymbals to maintain the often complex and fast paced rhythm. For example Nicas Dream (a song played by many artists) switches between 4/4 Latin or Samba and 4/4 Swing, creating a complex rhythm. Above are the two different rhythms used during the song Nicas Dream There was significant emphasis placed on the 1st and 3rd beats of the bar by musicians during the swing era. However, during the Bebop period, the rhythmic prominence changed to the 2nd and 4th beats of the measure. These techniques created a feel of solos (characteristic of Bebop music) being more free and less rigidly tied into the song. This genre was characterised in part by its unpredictable rhythms. The scales, notation and approach to playing Although the approach to playing and soloing was different in Bebop in comparison to swing, most sections played were based on the melody of a song. Bop musicians employed chromatics and favoured the use of the 3rd, 5th, and flat 7th notes of the chords for improvisation. The faster tempo made the music more frantic and energetic which also led to a greater display of musicians technical talent. The use of harmony became significantly less fashionable for the greater part of the Bebop period and most melodies or heads were played in unison. Guitarists incorporated the use of unison octaves (made famous by Wes Montgomery) for solos. Song Analysis The following two songs are great examples of Bebop music, containing many of the features commonly associated with this genre: Billies Bounce Recorded in 1945, Billies bounce is a through composed Jazz-blues song written by Charlie Parker. The song was recorded by a quintet consisting of a young Miles Davis, Curley Russell on bass, Dizzy Gillespie on piano and Max Roach on drums. The song is in F major or D for alto sax and 4/4 time. The general chord progression of the song is in F blues, however the melodic tonality of the head and the solos are more characteristic of Jazz and the tempo, indicative of Bebop. It is described as a Bebop head over a variation of the 12-measure blues progression in which a I-VI-II-V7 substitutes for V7 V7- IV7, IV in the last six measure. The light, bubbly piano intro from Dizzy Gillespie outlines the beat and style of the song. This is followed by the head that is played in unison 3rds and octaves with both the saxophone and trumpet. In bars 11 and 12 we see a repeat of the earlier 2 note theme seen in bars 2 and 3 to end the head. Throughout the melody there are examples of chromatics and slurred triplet notes that are seen later during the solos. The first 7 bars of the song are in standard F blues; however in bar 8 there is an Am7, followed by an Abm7. This chromatically sets up the Gm7 in bar 9. A standard blues would see bar 9 and 10 contain the chords C7 and Bb7 respectively, but Billies bounce extends the C7 over 2 bars and then re-harmonizes it with a standard II-V7 progression that turns to F in the last 2 bars. The beginning of the first solo sees a chromatic passing note between the G and A and again between the Bb and C. At the end of the second bar the notes of the chord Dm7/C are played over the Bb7 chord. In the third bar, Charlie Parker uses the notes of the Eb Mixolydian scale. The movement of the whole song is highly arpeggiated in both directions and there is some trace of a stepwise movement. Parker used a licks-based approach to the solo; however he was also very adept at altering the licks already in his vocabulary and changing them in more creative ways. He had a very flexible sense of harmonic placement that allowed him to change the duration of chords by either hitting them early or prolonging them and even sometimes adding progressions that were not part of the accompaniment. Above is a list of the guide tone lines for measures 1-7 as notes in a staff. Above the staff are chord options implied by Parker occasionally. Four on Six Wes Montgomery Four on six is a Bebop Jazz piece written by Wes Montgomery. The song is in Bb major and 4/4 time. The Harmony is based around the intro made entirely of 5ths and played in unison with the bass and piano. The intro that precedes the solo sections, sees the drums playing a simple crotchet rhythm on alternate cymbals to create a 2/2 feel. Following the intro of 5ths, Wes plays a small break that consists of the four chords Bbmaj7, Gm7, G#m11, Am11 and D7(#9). The chords played in the break are similar to those that form the intro of 5ths, but are however played of a much smaller time frame. After the break there is a Small melody. This modal melody line moves around the notes of Gm9. The backing chords for the melody are the same as those seen in the first 2 bars of the song, however the Gm now includes the 7th note; a note often used in bebop scales and songs. The melody is followed by a II V chord sequence with strong accents. These II V chords follow the harmony of the intro. The ch ords used are Cm9, F7(#9b11), Bbm9, Eb7(#11b9), Am9, D7(#11b9), Ebm9 and Ab9(#11). The chord sequence is descending and contains many chromatic notes that are very characteristic of bebop music. After the melody and chord sequence the solo section of the song begins. The chord accompaniment for this section is very similar to that of the intro. The chords cycle through 4 bars of Gm7, then simplified version of the descending sequence. For improvisation over the solo section there are a few scales that Wes Montgomery generally used that fit his style and way of playing. Over the Gm7 part Wes would use a G Dorian scale consisting of the notes G, A, Bb, C, D, E and F. Wes made sure that he was ever confined to one position on the neck and therefore learned the scale across the whole guitar neck. An alternative to the Dorian scale is the G minor pentatonic scale with or without the blues notes. This scale consists of the notes G, Bb, C, Db (blues), D and F. The blues notes are used to s lide from the C to the D. The advantage of the pentatonic scale in this situation is that all of the notes are either the root notes of the chords or a note inside the chords of the song. Wes uses many of his signature licks during his solos and even throws different styles into the mix. Above is an example of simple melody that includes a big jump across the fret board of the guitar. It uses a Gm(7) arpeggio with extensions. Wes also uses other styles such as blues in his solos. Below are two examples of this. This is a unison-interval blues clichà © played over the Gm7/maj7 and C7 chords. There are two hammer-ons and pull-offs during the melody to make a faster, smoother transition between notes. Above is a series of four repeated II-Vs. In the theme the dominant chords contain a natural 9 and Sharp 11 (F9#11). The scale played over these chords is a melodic minor scale. Over the Cm7 and F7 a C melodic minor scale can be played, however the name of this scale over the F7 is the Lydian dominant scale (5th mode of the melodic minor). Wes Montgomery doesnt think in scales for this part but in melodic patterns. Because the tempo is so fast this is an advantage as fast tempos make scales difficult to play musically. He frequently plays a pattern on the first II V and transposes it down the neck for the rest of the II Vs. Features The evolution to Bebop music created many stylistic changes and new musical features, which not only livened up the music but made it more contemporary, and distinguished the more accomplished musicians. The melodies were different from those previously associated with Jazz and were the base for most improvisational solos. Scales Jazz musicians typically used complex scales for their solos. The generic Bebop scale was made by adding either a major 7 to a Mixolydian scale or a major 3 to a Dorian scale. For solos, musicians preferred to use the 1, 3, 5 and flat 7th notes of the scale. Illustration of a C Major Bebop Scale The freedom of the melodies and complex chords of Bop opened up new possibilities for soloing. Musicians could play over the whole register of their instruments and find notes in any range that fitted into the chord progression; aided through the use of chromatics. Musicians used other scales such as the blues or enclosed scales (which use the technique enclosure- taking a note and playing one note above it and one note below before arriving at the note you were targeting.) Comping Although Rhythm guitar had essentially been excluded from Bebop bands, it was still used when accompanying a soloist through the comping (staccato chord playing) technique. However, as Bebop did not often follow a simple time signature, comping was not used frequently. Furthermore, the rhythms used by musicians were commonly irregular and thus the regular strumming pattern of comping may have disturbed the soloist. Chord melody Some musicians played solo arrangements by simultaneously playing chords in the background and the melody over the top. This was most commonly associated with piano and guitar. Decline of Bebop Economic Although considered a significant musical achievement by many musicians, by the 1950s bop music had begun to decline; partly due to its lack of commercial viability and niche market appeal. Variety magazine, an entertainment trade magazine based in New York reported Bop is a flop in late 1949. Many musicians such as Charlie Barnet, Benny Goodman and Woody Herman (who was $175,000 in debt) had to break up their bands during this decline. Cool Jazz and Hard bop The decline of Bebop music served as a platform for 2 new subgenres in Jazz. Firstly, Cool Jazz which was developed by many bop musicians such as Chet Baker, John Coltrane, Miles Davis, Dizzy Gillespie and newer musicians such as Dave Brubeck and Gerry Mulligan; was a direct contrast to bop with its more relaxed tempo, lighter tone and more traditional harmonies. In response to this progression and to maintain some of the features of Bebop, another subgenre developed known as Hard bop. This music was less extreme than Bebop music, had a more soulful feel rooted in traditional African and Blues music but still incorporating many phrases and notes from Bebop. These differences made Hard bop more accessible to beginner musicians and brought back a rhythm section. Artists Many artists that had been prominent during the Bebop era such as John Coltrane, Dizzy Gillespie, Thelonious Monk and Charlie Parker; continued playing into the Hard bop and Cool Jazz period that subsequently followed. The most prominent cross-over artist of the two genres was Miles Davis who became very popular and well-known, especially with the release of his record Birth of Cool which was acclaimed within the Jazz world. Conclusion At the height of its popularity, Bebop introduced many innovations into the world of not only Jazz, but other genres of music. It changed the way musicians and listeners alike viewed Jazz and opened up many doorways to other styles, genres and artists. Bebop music has been an innovation and the ideas that have been created are still used to this day. In modern day jam sessions, Bebop is one of the most employed genres due to its small band sizes and simple structure (melody followed by solos). It gives many musicians the chance to improvise and explore different avenues of Jazz, allowing for the progression of new music in the modern industry. Even After its decline, bop music is still influencing instrumentalists and their music today Bibliography Websites http://library.thinkquest.org/18602/history/bop/bopstart.html http://www.scaruffi.com/history/jazz8.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bebop http://www.jazzguitar.be/bebopscale.html http://www.jazzguitar.be/bebop.html http://www.jazzquotations.com/2010/05/brief-history-of-bebop.html (function() { var scribd = document.createElement("script"); scribd.type = "text/javascript"; scribd.async = true; scribd.src = "https://www.scribd.com/javascripts/embed_code/inject.js"; var s = document.getElementsByTagName("script")[0]; s.parentNode.insertBefore(scribd, s); })() http://leadsheetmusic.com/multifakebooks.brooklyn/01_Fake_and_Real_Books/Play_Along/Vol_62_Wes_Montgomery_v2.pdf http://www.hypermusic.ca/jazz/bop.html http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20090202152858AAjScZJ http://www.mattwarnockguitar.com/bebop-scale-patterns-for-guitar http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-bebop-music.htm http://www.kennedy-center.org/programs/jazz/ambassadors/Lesson6.html http://www.jazzguitar.com/lessons.html http://books.google.co.nz/books?id=hNTLZ3bpBFcCpg=PA447lpg=PA447dq=decline+of+bebopsource=blots=_GLiz0J9Zpsig=6xcoNDngRNtGHsXwTlJc81fek54hl=ensa=Xei=MdTFT9mfFcHYigeSs62hAwved=0CFkQ6AEwAw v=onepageq=decline%20of%20bebopf=false http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wes_Montgomery http://www.jazzguitar.be/premium-issue-1.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jazz_guitar http://www.jazzguitarlessons.net/jazz-improvisation-2.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lead_guitar Creating_lead_guitar_lines http://www.guitarplayer.com/article/jazz-picking-and-phrasing/663 http://www.theguitarschool.com/CharlieParker.html http://airjudden.tripod.com/jazz/styles.html http://www.learning-charlie-parker.com/licks.php http://web.archive.org/web/20070812145101/http://www.vervemusicgroup.com/history.aspx?hid=20 http://teacher.scholastic.com/activities/bhistory/history_of_jazz.htm (function() { var scribd = document.createElement("script"); scribd.type = "text/javascript"; scribd.async = true; scribd.src = "https://www.scribd.com/javascripts/embed_code/inject.js"; var s = document.getElementsByTagName("script")[0]; s.parentNode.insertBefore(scribd, s); })() http://www.jazzinamerica.org/LessonPlan/5/5/230 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bassline Walking_bass http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hard_bop http://www.timeisonourside.com/STBop.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cool_jazz http://forums.allaboutjazz.com/showthread.php?t=37646 http://forum.saxontheweb.net/showthread.php?35319-BeBop-HardBop http://www.jazzinamerica.org/LessonPlan/8/6/211 http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/music/popular_music/jazz3.shtml http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20080228152849AAQMyaT http://xroads.virginia.edu/~asi/musi212/margaret/martist.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ii-V-I_turnaround#Jazz http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ii-V-I_turnaround#Jazz http://www.musicbanter.com/jazz-blues/58195-jazz-progression-2-5-1-a.html http://peterspitzer.blogspot.co.nz/2011/07/analysis-of-charlie-parkers-billies.html http://ebmusicman.blogspot.co.nz/2008/03/billies-bounce-part-1.html http://s130.photobucket.com/albums/p261/liquidtensionxpr/blog/?action=viewcurrent=billiesbounce-simplified-part1.jpg http://s130.photobucket.com/albums/p261/liquidtensionxpr/blog/?action=viewcurrent=reharm-04b.gif http://www.jazzguitar.be/billies_bounce_lesson.html Books Roads of Jazz Peter Bole Jazz: A history of Americas music Geoffrey C. Ward and Ken Burns The Chronicle of Jazz Mervyn Cooke Discography Song Played by Nicas Dream Wes Montgomery Tune up Miles Davis Airegin Sonny Rollins Four on Six Wes Montgomery Billies Bounce Charlie Parker

Friday, September 20, 2019

Reconfiguration of 11KV Feeder

Reconfiguration of 11KV Feeder Introduction CE 2.1 I did this project as a graduate Electrical Engineering while pursuing my Bachelor of Engineering in the field of Electrical Engineering from Balochistan University of Engineering and Technology, Balochistan. I wanted to conduct a project that would be challenging and would involve how to improve the existing power grid by helping the current or load at a given time. I wanted to create a system by improving the power factor or changing the conductor size or substituting the cables with conductors. I was able to improve my written and oral presentation skills as well as my interpersonal skills by the successful completion of this project. Background CE 2.2 For this project as an undergraduate student in electrical engineering, I wanted to start working on a project that would be challenging. I wanted to learn about the different and commonly used electrical/electronic components, the working mechanism and the implementation in a common every-day system. Feeder configuration is a very important step to enhance the quality and reliability of a distribution system. During my studies, I had learned that traditionally, in Pakistan, the feeder configuration is done by opening/closing or tie sectionalizing the switches in order to alter network map and thus the flow of power from substation to customers. I had studied during my bachelors that the reason Feeder configuration is done is to reduce system power loss and also for load balancing. As the loading conditions change, it is important to reconfigure it to reduce power losses in the network. And it is due to this reason that I selected the Reconfiguration of 11KV Feeder for my project. CE 2.3 The objective of my project is to design a system to reconfigure the network for loss reduction for 11KV feeder. Or the reconfiguration of the distribution network under normal operation to reduce active losses and to balance loads in the system. CE 2.4 CE 2.5 I first had to conduct a detailed literature review to find the best applicable approach to this system for reconfiguration. I decided to use Branch exchange and Loop cutting methods along with a theoretical Heurestic approach to achieve my objectives. I used the computer software for ELR to analyse the feeder and to calculate the results. I initially, used an existing configuration based on actual data to calculate the current Energy Loss Reduction (ELR) I then tabulated all the results and obtained a schematic diagram to show my results. I completed the project within the time frame specified by the university. I presented my findings to my supervisor. Personal Engineering Activity CE 2.6 I approached a senior professor with an idea of conducting a project about the power grid. Along with my group members, I had a lot of brainstorming sessions and review meetings with my project supervisor to select a suitable topic. I suggested that I work on a project that was concerned with restructuring the power grid to minimize distribution losses and we suggested that we select a suitable location for this project to be carried out and thus the topic Reconfiguration of 11KV feeder came in to being and the supervisor agreed to this and asked us to begin working on this by first conducting a literature review on all the components we would require and the working of this project and to start working on this project. CE 2.7 I decided to select a Surab Town feeder of 11KV which starts from the 132KV Pakistan Railway Grid Station. I found that this grid has two transformers connected in parallel having a capacity of 10/13MVA each and 132/11KV. This particular feeder provided power of mixed loads to residential, commercial, agricultural and gas power plants. I carried out the Physical Survey of the existing 11KV Surab Town Feeder and plotted a Single line diagram of existing Surab town feeder. I calculated the energy losses and voltage drop of existing distribution system keeping in view the QESCO requirements. The length of feeder is 42.62km with annual energy loss 457898.1kWH and maximum percentage voltage drop is 6.5%, which is beyond the specified limit of QESCO i.e. 5.0% and is not acceptable as shown in the table below. Month Max Hour KWH Reading in Year-3 (KWH) Units Sent in Year-3 (KWH) Units Sold in Year-3 (KWH) Losses KWH % January 0920108 0922574 1954326 1020746 933580 47.8 February 1809123 1811499 1504110 785804 719490 47.8 March 2577218 2580502 1233398 1324005 -90607 -7.3 April 2944920 2946703 1695002 1472175 223911 13.2 May 4197868 4199507 1758256 1693000 65256 3.7 June 4483081 4485732 1472868 1392621 84892 5.8 July 5663010 5665217 1452128 1146852 303276 21.0 August 6179532 6174379 1272432 1263513 8919 0.7 September 72162 76150 1636414 5107276 129138 7.9 October 1747258 172496 2070467 1654039 418057 20.2 November 4868322 4873227 2704009 1584898 1119111 41.4 December 6046270 602780 3086286 1626763 1459523 47.3 I used the following simple algorithm for the algorithm: Start with an existing configuration. Read Input data..Run ELR program..Display results..Compare KWH losses, If KWH loss CE 2.8 My test system is a high loss, problematic distribution feeder of QESCO. In first, the existing Grid and feeder data are collected from Surab grid station. The data made run in ELR Software, which results high losses due to overloads. As the ampere load accedes then 300 amp on main Dog conductor , To overcome these overloads we recon figurate the feeder by using three different methods i.e. Branch Exchange Method, Loop Cutting Method and then we applied bifurcation method to isolate the existing feeder into two parts. I collected data from the Head office QESCO in Quetta, Pakistan and found that the monthly Peak Load is between 600-700 Amps and the off peak load between 5-90 Amps with the lowest being in November. I conducted a Load flow analysis was done using ELR Program with the following input Parameters at 5% annual Load growth rate Load in Amp.=395 Amp @ 5% for 5 years Bus Voltage=11KV Feeder load factor=6.29% Existing power factor=0.78% Proposed power factor=0.79% Capacitor installed=2Nos. I proposed the following one line diagram of QESCO feeder as prepared on the basis of field visits is shown below in figure. This figure clearly shows the difference between actual and proposed configuration of the feeder. In this figure 154 node are shifted. Also the route of power flow has been changed there by feeding all the consumers. This configuration has reduced the line losses too as evident from the load flow analysis. The details are feeder given below. Power T/F # ÃŽâ„ ¢ÃƒÅ½Ã¢â€ž ¢ Feeder code 020201 Power T/F capacity 10/13 MVA Number of node 92 Number of transformers 66 Number dog conductor 18 Number rabbit conductor 73 Total length of line 18.42 KM Total KVAS 5350 KVA I also proposed and conducted a Load flow analysis using ELR Program with the following input Parameters at 5% annual Load growth rate. Load in Amp= [emailprotected]%for 5 years Bus Voltage = 11KV Feeder load factor= 6.29% Existing power factor = 0.78% Proposed power factor = 0.95% (Improved Due to capacitor Placement) CE 2.9 I conducted this project successfully and found that the ELR program could be used sappropriately and properly to find the optimal configuration of 11KV feeder, demonstrating the feasibility of such an approach for the solution of this problem. However, refinements to the algorithm may be necessary in order to achieve satisfactory performance on large, real-world systems consisting of thousands of buses. The following were my results: Losses (KWH) minimized from 457898 to 332944 Voltage drop improved from 6.5% to 4.4% Power Factor improvement from 0.78% to 0.95% (Result of proposed configuration) B/C Ratio is 24.25 CE 2.10 My contribution during this project was: Gathering Exact Grid data on realistic approaches. Gathering feeder data, one line diagram preparation physically through field visits. Exact measures and distances of node-to-node and exact electrical parameters informations. Keeping in view different constraints, like Cost, Obstacles, Load. Losses, Environmental / social constraints, Betterment of WAPDA as well as general public. Re-notification of existing configuration and finding the optimal configuration by repetition the results obtained after execution of ELR Program. Removing haphazard road crossings and reducing the length of feeder. Load Balancing. Placement of Capacitor at best locations for obtaining best results. Summary CE 2.9 I successfully completed the project titled Reconfiguration of a 11KV Feeder along with my team members. I learned how to reconfigure a 11KV feeder and about the different approaches by execution of the ELR program I learned how to gather Grid data for realistic approaches to improve loading. By the successful completion of this project, I was able to improve my written, oral and interpersonal skills. I was also able to improve my team work. The main objective of this research is to develop methodology and guide lines for distribution engineers to show that by reducing the energy losses of distribution system, available capacity of the system may be conserved without putting up additional capacity. A generalized computer program is used to evaluate any given HT/LT system and propose capacitor banks at different points, different conductor sizes in different portions of system. This results in improving the stability as well as energy handling capacity of the system at minimum cost.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Eriksons Stage of Development Essay -- Application Development Stages

Erikson's Stage of Development †¢Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Stage 1: My mother fed me consistently throughout the day. I was fed at the same times daily. I learned how to blindly trust my mother for providing milk. I learned how to trust my environment in general and developed a secure attachment toward my parents. †¢Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Stage 2: While I was learning how to walk, my parents left me alone to explore how to walk by myself. I would hold onto the edges of the walls to help support me up. My parents encouraged my use of initiative and reassured me when I fell down. I developed the confidence needed to cope with future situations that required choice, control, or independence. †¢Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Stage 3: I had an imaginary friend named Billy at this age. I never felt shame when using my imagination or talking to my imaginary friend. However, I learned that I should not always do what Billy did. For example, if Billy threw away a penny, I knew that I should not do the same. This taught me the ability to accept what was happening without guilt and that there are certain things that are wrong to do. †¢Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Stage 4: Through attending school, I learned the necessity to be productive and do my own work. I learned to make things, use tools, and acquire skills to be a worker and a potential provider. I participated in a wide variety of events throughout the day including academics, group activities and friends. Due to these activities I developed a sense of competence. †¢Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Stage 5: Currently, I decide wh...

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee :: essays research papers

Scout Finch lives with her brother, Jem, and their widowed father, Atticus, in the sleepy Alabama town of Maycomb. Maycomb is suffering through the Great Depression, but Atticus is a prominent lawyer and the Finch family is reasonably well off in comparison to the rest of society. One summer, Jem and Scout befriend a boy named Dill, who has come to live in their neighborhood for the summer, and the trio acts out stories together. Eventually, Dill becomes fascinated with the spooky house on their street called the Radley Place. The house is owned by Mr. Nathan Radley, whose brother, Arthur (nicknamed Boo), has lived there for years without venturing outside. Scout goes to school for the first time that fall and detests it. She and Jem find gifts apparently left for them in a knothole of a tree on the Radley property. Dill returns the following summer, and he, Scout, and Jem begin to act out the story of Boo Radley. Atticus puts a stop to their antics, urging the children to try to see life from another person's perspective before making judgments. But, on the last day of summer, the three sneak onto the Radley property, where Nathan Radley shoots at them. Jem loses his pants in the ensuing escape. When he returns for them, he finds them mended and hung over the fence. The next winter, Jem and Scout find more presents in the tree, presumably left by the mysterious Boo. Nathan Radley eventually plugs the knothole with cement. Shortly thereafter, a fire breaks out in another neighbor's house, and during the fire someone slips a blanket on Scout's shoulders as she watches the blaze. Convinced that Boo did it, Jem tells Atticus about the mend ed pants and the presents. To the consternation of Maycomb's racist white community, Atticus agrees to defend a black man named Tom Robinson, who has been accused of raping a white woman. Because of Atticus's decision, Jem and Scout are subjected to abuse from other children, even when they celebrate Christmas at the family compound on Finch's Landing. Calpurnia, the Finches' black cook, takes them to the local black church, where the warm and close-knit community largely embraces the children. Atticus's sister, Alexandra, comes to live with the Finches the next summer. Dill, who is supposed to live with his new stepfather in another town, runs away and comes to Maycomb. Tom Robinson's trial begins, and when the accused man is placed in the local jail, a mob gathers to lynch him.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

The NYS prescribed learning standards

The NYS prescribed learning standards is an important resource for teachers as it identifies what topics and skills students should be able to learn and master in a specific grade. However, generating ideas for activities and lessons on a specific topic is a difficult task. A teacher has to find inspiration from his/her students and everyday life in order to make the learning experience more meaningful. As a teacher, the resources available for lesson planning and designing of activities are numerous; it could be from textbooks, from teacher resources in the internet or even from one’s colleagues.Active learning and inquiry as a teaching strategy can also be the same ways of thinking that would help teachers generate ideas on how to incorporate active learning and inquiry into one’s lessons. It is difficult to generate these types of activities because we have not been used to thinking about learning and the teaching process in this way (Johnson & Johnson, 1999). Moreov er, we know that these methods are more effective but since we have not been trained in it, it is very difficult for us to actually make the activity. We have to rely on preprogrammed or pre-designed activities and customize it to our own classroom experience.These approaches are not used very often in schools because teachers themselves are not that knowledgeable about the process, teachers need to be pushed and required to use it before any changes could ever happen. Active learning is evident in the video when the teacher instructed the students to discover what they can about the assigned task, there was no predetermined way of finding the correct answer, but the students where to use their imagination and previous learning to be able to describe and explain the subject matter of the study.

Monday, September 16, 2019


Define the following terms: 1. Horizontal Cable : A type of inside cable designed for horizontal use in non-plenum areas. While horizontal cable must be fire retardant, the National Electrical Code (NEC) specifications are not as demanding as those governing the use of plenum cable or riser cable. See also NEC, plenum, plenum cable, and riser cable. 2. Backbone Cable : Backbone cabling is the inter-building and intra-building cable connections in structured cabling between entrance facilities, equipment rooms and telecommunications closets.Backbone cabling consists of the transmission media, main and intermediate cross-connects and terminations at these locations. This system is mostly used in data centers. 3. Patch Cords: a short cord with a plug at each end, or a plug at one end and a pair of clips at the other, used for temporarily connecting two pieces of equipment or signal paths. 4. Connectors: A device for holding two parts of an electrical conductor in contact. 5. Conduit: A tube or duct for enclosing electric wires or cable. 6.Racks: A computer rack (commonly called a rack) is a metal frame used to hold various hardware devices such as servers, hard disk drives, modems and other electronic equipment. Some may refer to a rack as â€Å"LAN or network furniture† as resembles a shelving structure where components can be attached vertically, stacked on top of one another. A computer rack can also be called a relay rack or open rack. 7. Punch-Down Blocks: is a type of electrical connection often used in telephony. It is named because the solid copper wires are â€Å"punched down† into short open-ended slots which are a type of insulation-displacement connectors.These slots, usually cut crosswise (not lengthwise) across an insulating plastic bar, contain two sharp metal blades which cut through the wire's insulation as it is punched down. These blades hold the wire in position and make the electrical contact with the wire as well. 8. Consolidati on Points: an optional device for interconnecting horizontal cables between the Horizontal Cross-Connect and the Telecommunications Outlet or MUTOA within a structured cabling system. 9. Crimpers: A tool used to crimp, to join two pieces of metal 10.Fish Tape : a flat tempered spring-steel tape or wire used in pulling electric wire and cables (as into conduit runs) —called also snake wire 11. Continuity Tester: is an item of electrical test equipment used to determine if an electrical path can be established between two points;[1] that is if an electrical circuit can be made. The circuit under test is completely de-energized prior to connecting the apparatus 12. Category 5e/6 Cable : cabling is used as a cabling infrastructure for 10BASE-T (Ethernet), full duplex 100BASE-TX (Fast Ethernet) and 1000BASE-T (Gigabit Ethernet, or GbE) networks.The Cat 5e standard provides performance of up to 100 MHz and can be used up to a maximum length of 100 meters. 13. Binder Groups: A group of wire pairs bound together, usually by some sort of color-coded plastic tape or thread. In a large twisted pair cable, there may be many pairs combined into binder groups of 25 pairs for ease of connectivity management. Each pair within a binder group is uniquely color-coded for further ease of management. See also cable and wire. 14. Hybrid/Composite Cable : composite cable A communications cable having both optical and metallic signal-carrying components.Note 1: A cable having optical fiber(s) and a metallic component, e. g. , a metallic twisted pair, used solely for conduction of electric power to repeaters, does qualify as a composite cable. Note 2: A cable having optical fiber(s) , plus a metallic strength member or armor, does not qualify as a composite cable. Hybrid †¢An optical communications cable having two or more different types of optical fibers, e. g. , single-mode and multimode fibers. 15. Pulling Cable : The act of pulling the wires, as of a puppet; hence, se cret influence or management, especially in politics; intrigue 6. Wavelengths of Light: The length of a single cycle of a wave, usually measured from crest-to-crest. For electromagnetic waves 17. EMI : is the disruption of operation of an electronic device when it is in the vicinity of an electromagnetic field (EM field) in the radio frequency (RF) spectrum that is caused by another electronic device. 18. Optical-Fiber Strand : Is this referring to the actual pure glass on the middle of the fiber 19. Index of Refraction : the ratio of the velocity of light in a vacuum to that in a medium. 0. wordnetweb. princeton. edu/perl/webwn 21. Cable Jacket : The outer protective coating which covers the core of the cable.. 22. Cladding Size : A metal coating bonded onto another metal under high pressure and temperature. 23. Multifiber Cables : Fiber optic Cable bearing many fibers independently sheathed and capable of carrying unrelated signals. They often surround a central strength member, a nd can be either loose- or tight-buffered. One standard configuration is a 12-fiber cable. 24. Differential Mode Delay: 25.In an optical fiber, the variation in propagation delay that occurs because of the different group velocities of different modes. Synonym multimode group delay. 26. Chromatic Dispersion : In optics, dispersion is the phenomenon in which the phase velocity of a wave depends on its frequency,[1] or alternatively when the group velocity depends on the frequency. Media having such a property are termed dispersive media. Dispersion is sometimes called chromatic dispersion to emphasize its wavelength-dependent nature, or group-velocity dispersion (GVD) to emphasize the role of the group velocity

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Kant: Human, Animals, and Empathy Essay

Immanuel Kant remains one of the most influential thinkers in history. Part of Kant’s appeal is his ability to provide incredibly unique insights into the human condition. One of the more interesting works by Kant was his writing that looked into human interrelations with animals. From his examinations, Kant essentially shows that how humans treat animals is indicative of how they will treat other people. This ties very heavily into the notion that the human-animal relationship is linked heavily with empathy. Kant makes a very sobering point in his analysis of human relationships with animals. Much of Kant’s analysis is realistic and this realistic insight notes the darker side of human nature. Kant understands that not all human/animal relationships are harmonious. The sad fact remains that there are those who are cruel to animals. Many sociopathic individuals display enormous cruelty to animals. Granted, the number of those individuals is limited in comparison to those who have harmonious relationships. But, these individuals do exists. There numbers – while low – are still significant enough that there are laws on the books designed to punish their cruel behavior. Kant understands this because he looks at the relationship from a common sense perspective. After all, how could a person who tortures animals show empathy towards humans? A lack of empathy against any living this is indicative that the person possesses NO empathy. Kant also points out that a child who possesses such cruel behavior will likely develop into a cruel adult. That is the path such a malformed development of relationships will lead the child when he/she blossoms into adulthood. Of course, not all of Kant’s writing deals with the negative aspects that can come to light when examining the relationship between humans and animals. The inverse is also presented as well. That is, the good qualities of a person become visible when examining how a person treats their loving animals. A person who cares for a dog when it is sick, gives it food when it is hungry, and provides shelter when the animal needs protection is clearly a person who understand the concept of giving to those in need. Such actions will eventually re-emerge in their relationships with other humans. Now, does that mean that simply because a dog owner is angelic with his pet that the owner will be devoid of cruelty towards others? No, of course not; such an assessment would be absurd. However, if a person does treat an animal with kindness and respect then empathy is present. Simply put, all good treatment of animals is synonymous with empathy. You can not have one without the other. Granted, the actual volume of empathy may vary. That is, a person may show empathy towards family and friends but may possess aberrant or destructive traits as well. A person who loves his family selflessly may also possess racial animosity. However, if one were to look at reducing or eliminating racial animosity (or any other personality aberrancy), a person with a capacity for empathy will be more than likely to repent as opposed to a sociopath who lacks empathy. Keep in mind, empathy is not a minimal â€Å"touchy-feely† emotion. Empathy goes to the core of who we are and what we are capable of. That is why it is critical to understand how beings react to others since this gives an insight into their empathic nature. A clear examination of human-animal relationships provides this insight. Or, at least, this is the hope.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Being an International Student

There are a number of reasons why people decide to study in another country. For one, the educational facilities and competencies of the schools in other countries may be better than the ones available in the home country. As such, studying in famous universities may provide a greater level of academic proficiency and prestige to the person who studied in these universities. Another reason for an individual to study abroad is the exposure of a person to different cultures and modes of life.Interacting with people from diverse nationalities and cultures can greatly enhance the academic experience of a person and will add a depth of understanding to the particular subject of study of such a person. Whatever the reasons are for studying in another country, there are certain advantages and disadvantages associated with it. One of the issues that have to be addressed is language. Does the student have the necessary skills and proficiency in the language of instruction of the university he or she will study at? Most universities now use English as the medium of instruction.Other countries, however, especially in Japan and in Europe, would require a level of proficiency in the language of instruction being used in these countries. In addition to this, the international student would have to prepare himself with the different nuances and difficulties associated with being immersed in another culture. If the student is not oriented or prepared well, the tendency would be for him to undergo a culture shock. Furthermore, he will be subjected to the different effects of being an international student. This essay looks at the different factors and issues that affect the general well-being of an international student.It also puts forward several suggestions as to how an international student could cope well with the pressures and issues he has to face. Effects of Being an International Student One of the most easily recognizable effects of being an international student is t he loneliness and homesickness during the first few months of staying abroad. Homesickness may be brought about by several factors. The environment that the student is in would be vastly different from the environment that he enjoyed at home. The familiar comforts of family and friends are literally oceans and thousands of miles away.Given this, it would be easy to succumb to depression and sadness caused by homesickness. This is further affected by several other factors in the environment of the international student. He lacks familiarity in the place and the nature of social interactions in the country where he studies would be different from what he is used to. In this regard, he would have to adjust as effectively and as quickly as possible. Otherwise, homesickness will get the best of him and will negatively impact his performance in his studies (Andrade, 2006).The international student might also suffer from culture shock brought about by his interaction with people that belon g to a different frame of reference from him. Back in his home country, the student might not have paid attention to the nuances in meaning and interpretation of social gestures and statements. Also, there might several behaviors that would be considered as different from the norm. These cultural differences would create stress and difficulty on the part of the international student, especially if he does not develop a network that would help him adapt in the society (Andrade, 2006).On the other hand, when an international student has immersed himself in the culture of his host country, he might forget his cultural heritage and would display the culture of the host country even in the presence of his fellow citizens of his home country. The preservation of his cultural integrity would therefore be necessary, especially if he were to go back to his home country after his stint as an international student (Andrade, 2006). In addition to these effects, the international student will al so be subjected to learning shock (Griffiths, Winstanley & Gabriel, 2005).This learning shock is characterized by ambiguous expectations, frustrations, confusion and anxiety brought about by the unfamiliar learning environment in a foreign country. The teaching methods that they encounter, the way that they become disoriented by cues and other learning environments all contribute to the learning shock that they experience. The language barriers and difficulties in communication also contribute to this learning shock. Although English has become the most famous medium of instruction all over the world, there are still difficulties that people who speak English as a second language experience.The metaphors and figures of speech in English are sometimes difficult to grasp and understand. The readings for the subjects that international students have to take are full of these metaphors and add to the learning shock being experienced by the international student. The issue of finances fo r studying may also become an issue for an international student. Although it is easier nowadays to transfer funds from one area of the world to another, the allowances and funds for schooling of an international student may be limited.When the international student is in his home country, it would be easier to ask help from friends and family members. However, because of the distance separating him from such relationships that he has this might also contribute to anxiety and learning shock that he s already experiencing. There are instances, therefore, that the international student will have to work part time just to finance his studies. This act, however, is dependent on the nature of the visa granted to the international student.If working part time becomes an option for the student, then this might also have an impact on his studies especially in terms of managing time and the requirements of the school. Given these effects of studying in another country, any international stud ent should be able to devise some ways in order to cope effectively with these difficulties. Otherwise, the international student might be forced to go home without finishing the degree because of homesickness and the learning shock that he experiences. Dealing With the Effects of Studying in another CountryIn order for an international student to deal with these effects, he has to learn how to integrate himself in the society. This includes learning the language of the country that he will be studying in. Learning the language means going beyond having survival skills in the language of the country that the student is in. It also means learning the connotations and degrees of meaning of the language and the way that people use their language. Classroom-level mastery of language is good. However, this is not an assurance that the way that language will be used in conversations and in day-to-day interactions is an entirely different matter.Having proficiency with the language will be an integral part for the integration of the international student in the school as well as in the society in general. According to Koskinen & Tossavainen (2003), intercultural mentoring is an important part of the integration process of an international student in the academe and in the society. This kind of mentoring needs to be administered by international students as well or by culturally-sensitive faculty and older students so that the new international student could adapt well with the demands of the academe and of the society where they are located.When the mentor looks after the adjustment level of the student; establishes meaningful relationship, guides the international student in mutual learning and guidance in most aspects of studying and living in a foreign country. Although there are moments of frustration, Koskinen & Tossavainen (2003) noted that this experience also presents rewards to both the mentor and the student. In some universities and higher education instit utions, their usual approach in helping international students is usually through official programs in the school and mediation in the academics of the student.However, the interpersonal and informal means of mentoring and helping the student assimilate himself in the academe and in the society (Major, 2005). Being an international student poses several challenges. It has several effects, which, if not checked and effectively addressed can cause severe repercussions on the academic standing of the student. By having a good understanding of these effects, several means of intervention can be arrived at and will help the international student. Reference Andrade, M. S. (2006). International Student Persistence: Integration or Cultural Integrity?Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory and Practice, 8 (1), 57-81. Griffiths, D. S. , Winstanley, D. & Gabriel, Y. (2005). Learning Shock. Management Learning, 36(3), 275-297. Koskinen, L. & Tossavainen, K. (2003) Characteristics of intercultural mentoring – a mentor perspective. Nurse Education Today, 23 (4), 278-285. Major, E. M. (2005). Co-national support, cultural therapy, and the adjustment of Asian students to an English-speaking university culture. International Education Journal, 6(1), 84-95.

Friday, September 13, 2019

My Communication Style Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

My Communication Style - Essay Example Many of the customers possess the communication style of being a questioner and an asserter. As they are on the receiving part, they tend to ask in-depth questions and try to clear out all possible level of queries with the customer service representative. Some customers are harsh and some are cool and patient. Different types of customers need to be dealt according to their nature of questions. At the end of the day, there are certain goals and objective that I have to accomplish and be accountable to my management. Hence to achieve these goals I need to constantly improvise my communication skills. At certain times, some difficulties may lead to undesirable conversations which may lead to conflicts with the customers. The Perfectionist : While dealing with a perfectionist I would ensure that I give in all the details and also accomplish all my goals while dealing with customers. Since the perfectionist wants detail oriented conversation, all details would be provided The Achiever: When an achiever style of communication comes forward, as I too am an achiever, the conversation would be enjoyable as well as logical. As both the customer and I would be clear and logical on whatever is being communicated. The Romantic: While dealing with a Romantic style communication of the customer, I would make the customer talk more about their feelings and perceptions about the product or service so that they feel motivated and feel important during conversation. The Observer: I would ask the Observer style of customer to clear their queries as such customers do not share their feelings. Being an achiever, I would ask them to share their though process and convey my opinions accordingly. The Questioner: I would communicate with a style that is not confusing and in which the customer does not have any doubts because such customers are very particular about

Thursday, September 12, 2019

Leglization of Marijuana Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Leglization of Marijuana - Research Paper Example Firstly, a comparison between alcohol and cigarettes shows that the use of marijuana has mild health risks and losses to the society. This is a great paradox since alcohol and cigarettes have not been banned despite their greater damage potential. This scenario further worsens owing to the ease of availability of the two products. On the contrary, to get marijuana, one must do it in secret so as not to arouse suspicion. Such hypocrisy and unfairness to marijuana users ought to end (Legalizationofmarijuana.com, 2010). Secondly, prohibiting marijuana has served to increase the black market that goes as far as to even corrupt the judicial system. There is massive bribing of judges that occurs to secure the release of rich marijuana dealers. Such arrests have led to America ending up as the largest jailor nation overcrowding jails, resulting in the release of more dangerous criminals such as murderers. On average, drug dealers are sentenced at a rate that is five times higher than the rate of those arrested for manslaughter. Such unfair severity in terms of punishment has led to the resignation of judges who do not wish to belong to a corrupt system (Legalizationofmarijuana.com, 2010). In addition, many farmers in America have turned to growing marijuana in their cornfields. This is because marijuana farming has become a lucrative venture with a bushel selling for up to 70,000 dollars. This is in stark contrast to that of corn, which rakes in a few dollars per bushel. Clearly, marijuana is fast substituting corn as the major cash crop in America. Failing to legalize marijuana is turning innocent farmers on whom the country‘s survival depends into criminals. Legislation of marijuana will work better than simply decriminalizing or medicalizing it. Decriminalisation serves to legalize the possession of little amounts of the drug although it does not put an end to the enormous black market or allow for simpler taxation.

Wednesday, September 11, 2019

Investment ratios of McBride plc Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Investment ratios of McBride plc - Essay Example According to David (2005), financial statements provide the potential users with a narrow insight into the strengths and weaknesses of a business. This is because what is reported does not give an in-depth depiction of performance of an entity. Such full view of a business is important as it would ultimately influence users’ decisions on whether to continue their association with an entity and in addition, give potential investors adequate information to aid them in decision-making. Thus, the concept of financial analysis The Mcbride Plc had basic normalized earnings per share of 2.9p, 12.3p, 9.2p, and 6.4p for the financial year of 2011, 2010, 2009 and 2008. This ratio is very important in comparing the performance of companies, as this cannot be done using the profit they make directly because of differences in the number of outstanding shares and income. A higher Earnings per Share is desirable to investors as it indicates a higher relative income. This company has a EPS that fluctuates from time to time which means that shareholders returns is unstable. Price to earnings ratio (P/E ratio)- David (2003) states that price/earnings ratio is the most commonly used to evaluate investment in an entity. He further points out that historically, the average P/E ratio for the broad market has been around 15, although it can fluctuate significantly depending on economic and market conditions. A stock with a high price/earnings ratio suggests that investors are expecting higher earnings growth in the future compared to the overall market while a stock with a low price/earnings ratio suggests that investors have more modest expectation for its future growth compared to the market as a whole (David, 2003). From the computations of price/earnings ratio for McBride plc in table below, the ratio declined from 10.8 in 2010 to 9.44 in 2011. This decline may not be attractive to prospective growth investors despite

4G Cellular Communication Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

4G Cellular Communication - Research Paper Example The technology provides high speed and quickens transmission of data from one place to another, hence making mode of communication be fast. However, the research will face some challenges in the coming years since it will require some conditions for it to run perfectly well. The objectives of the 4G cellular communication are aimed at improving the methods of communication within two groups of people as fast as possible to enhance economic growth of the world. The potential abuse of the technology occurs when individuals fail to follow the regulations provided by the technology. Introduction There always is the need for communication regardless of place and the distance. Consequently, there has been an augmented demand of wireless communication by companies globally owing to the awkwardness in using fixed wire telecommunications. The fourth Generation (4G) is a new technology seeking to address communication needs of the populace. The 4G of cellular communication are the advancements that are realized in the wireless telecommunication industries in the recent years globally. They provide fast transfer of data across electronic devices compared to the previous cellular communication approaches such as third generation (3G). The high speeds of the data transmissions upgrade the quality of communication through improvement of high definition video. According to Lu and Hu (2006), 4G is highly expected to transform the mobile communication system through upgrading smart phones to perform certain tasks that were only previously achievable by personal computers (PC). Mobile communication is going to be affected positively by the introduction of the fourth generation, since it will transform and improve its operation. In this essay, the development, challenges, uses, potential abuses by individuals, potential new developments, objectives, features, and application of the fourth generation technology are discussed broadly. Development Its history can be traced in the 19 70s when the first generation was introduced. It comprised of analog technology that was used to unravel essential problems that existed during that time. Analog systems were used to assist in communication in dissimilar places worldwide in the 1980s. However, the system was deliberate and unwieldy to use, but it was a successful discovery that initialized a technological journey. The second generation (2G) was introduced in 1980, and was used for voice applications and introduction of digital techniques that improved the speed of data transformations (Brand & Aghvami, 2002). The technology launched the use of circuit-switched data communication that enhanced use of the digital communication rather than the analog system. 2G is still used worldwide by few people since the technology involves some digital aspects, which are habitually preferable. The introduction of 3G was highly appreciated for the substantial improvements it launched in the communication expertise. The implication of 3G was that it improved the voice technology in channels (Arshad & Farooq & Shah, 2010). However, it faced a challenge since the two companies that instigated the technology failed to agree on the terms and parted ways. The 3G telecoms business has been outstandingly successful and has gained many profits in the few years since its launch. The technology has influenced the mobile technology that has subsequently assisted in the overture of internet in