Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Nature of Philosophy Essay

Philosophy * Comes from the 2 Greek words  « philos -love  » and  « sophia -wisdom  » * tasks that requires a deliberate effort to seek the truth. * The act of questioning or wanting to know initiates philosophy, and most of the time we relate philosophy to thinking. * Knowledge of all things, through this ultimate causes, aquired through the use of reasoning * Is the intense and critical examination of beliefs and assumptions Philosopher * Lover of knowledge * A person who seeks knowledge for its own sake and not for any other motive. * Philosophers examine questions dealing with life’s most important aspects. * Raphael (1994) describes philosophy as essentially divided into two branches: the Philosophy of knowledge and the Philosophy of practice. * The Philosophy of knowledge is attentive to critical examination of assumptions about matters of fact and argument. Included in this branch are: epistemology (study of knowledge), metaphysics (the study of ultimate reality), the philosophy of science, philosophy of mind and philosophical logic. * Philosophy of practice, on the other hand, focuses on critical examination of assumptions about norms or values and includes ethics, social and political philosophy, and the philosophy of the law. It is the Philosophy of practice, particularly moral philosophy, that provides a groundwork for discussion of many of the troubling issues facing nurses. Objectives of Philosophy * To seek the deepest explanations of existence and the nature of being. It specifically uses reasoning to show its natural scope in deriving explanations Spiritual / religious influences * Historically, many of the dominant religious institutions made judgements about the origin and essence of healing and described those who would hold positions as legitimate healers. * Nevertheless, nursing in  some form has existed in every culture, and has been influenced by spiritual beliefs, religious practices, and related cultural values. Gender influences * In every culture, women have been healers * As a result of the perception that women are more humane and more caring by nature, they have been viewed as naturally endowed with nursing talents. *  «Every woman†¦ has, at one time or another of her life, charge of the personal health of somebody, whether child or invalid- every woman is a nurse.  » ~Nightingale ANCIENT / PRESOCRATIC (7th century B. C) * Greek thinkers, called themselves  « wise men  » but of humility. * PYTHAGORAS- * One of the Greek thinkers, wanted to call himself a person who just love wisdom or a philosopher. * From then on, the Greek used the word philosophy for love of wisdom and philosopher as a lover of knowledge. * In the ancient times the position of healer was practiced by those thought to have special spiritual gifts. * When the reigning deity had a feminine, bisexual or androgynous nature, women were leaders in the healing arts. * As the world became a harsher place, and the Gods assumed a masculine nature, women’s role as independent, primary healer was taken away The Early Christian Era. * Early Christian nurses were frequently women of high social status and often became independent practitioners. * When religious belief moved toward a single male God, women’s healing role changed from that of sacred healer to subservient caregiver. MIDIEVAL / MIDDLE AGES * Christian scholars and Arab philosophers were the first to create a direct link of Philosophy to Theology, one of its main inspirations in the Christian faith which became a stimulus to reason. * During this time, monastcism and other religious groups offered the only opportunities for women to pursue careers in nursing. * Much of hospital nursing was carried out by repentant women and widows called sisters and by male nurses called brothers. * Deaconesses, matrons, and secular nursing orders were among the organized groups that had religious foundations and offered nusing services. * Much of hospital nursing was carried out by repentant women and widows called sisters and by male nurses called brothers. * Deaconesses, matrons, and secular nursing orders were among the organized groups that had religious foundations and offered nusing services. * Women who entered nursing orders donated their property and wealth to the Church and donated thier lives to service-believing that  « charity  » was synonymous with  « love  » * The term empirical relates to knowledge gained through the process of observation and experience. * Consequently, people were more likely to seek healing through religious intervention since the position of the Church was that only God and the devil had the power to either cause illness or promote healing * The crusades, which begin in 1096 and lasted nearly 200 years, brought many changes in health and population. * In response to the compelling need, military nursing orders were formed. These orders draw large numbers of men into the field of nursing. * During the Middle Ages, the status of women also declined. In many ways this was directly related to church doctrine. * St. Thomas Aquinas, known as the  « Angelic Doctor  » wrote that one should  « only make use of a necessary object, woman, who is needed to persevere the species or to provide food or drink†¦woman was created to be man’s helper, but her unique role is in conception†¦ since for all other purposes men would be better assisted by other men.  » * St. Jerome remarked that  « women is the gate of devil, the path of wickedness, the sting of the serpent, in the world a perilous object » * It was a popular religious view that women were essentially evil by nature. The pain of childbirth was believed to be punishment for Eve’s transgression, and served the purpose of reminding women of their original sinful nature. * Although the medical profession was officially sanctioned by the church, and male physicians were beginning to be trained in the university setting, there was scant scientific knowledge. They used bloodletting, astrology, alchemy, and incantations * Peasant women were  often the only healers for people who had no doctors and suffered bitterly from poverty and disease * These folk healers had extensive knowledge about cures that had been handled down for generations via oral tradition. * These women developed an extensive understanding of bones and muscles, herbs, drugs, and midwifery * This atmosphere set the stage for Church-sanctioned crimes against women in the form of the witch hunts. * Any women who treated an illness, even if she aplied a soothing salve to the diseased skin of her child, was likely to be acused of witchcraft. * If the treatment failes, she was sough to have cursed the patient. If the treatment succeeded, she was believed to be in consort with the devil * Although women were permitted to practice midwifery, these women were in danger of being accused of witchcraft if anything went wrong with either mother or baby MODERN (16th- 18 century A. D * During this period, Rene Descartes was known as the Father of Modern Philosophy, to his philosophy of rationalism and empiricism * RATIONALISM- – is a philosophical doctrine that specifically uses resoning and proof in explaining reality EMPIRICISM: – regards experience as the only source of knowledge,for it was during this time that the abundance of knowledge in science became a challenge for all philosophers to prove their discoveries and breakthrough to the aid of the aforementioned doctrines Renaissance and the Reformation * The sixteenth century heralded the beginning of two great movements: the renaissance and the reformation. * The renaissance produced an intellectual rebirth that began the scientific era * The reformation was a religious movement precipitated by the widespread abuses that had become a part of Church life and doctrinal disagreement among religious leaders. * The scientific community made advanced in mathematics and the sciences. * Rene Descartes is credited with proposing a theory that quickly altered philosophic beliefs about the separation of mind and body. * He proposed that the universe is a physical thing, and that everything in the universe is like a machine, which can be analyzed and understood. * Based on Descartes’ work  « cartesian philosophy  » began to replace religious beliefs related to the physical and spiritual beliefs of humankind. * As a direct result, a separation was created between the acts of caring and curing in the healing arts. * The reformation produced a split in the church. * A struggle between Catholic and Protestant groups spread across Europe, as a result, Catholicism lost its power in many countries. * Laws and cusotms in Protestant countries discouraged the humane care of the  « downtrodden and the weak  » CONTEMPORARY (20th century) * The existence of a great variety of doctrines of philosophy strenghtened its grasp in seeking the truth. * Among these are the doctrines of: * Karl Marx- Marxism * Immanuel Kant- Kantianism * Jean Paul Sartre- Existentialism The modern era * Florence Nightingale became a model for all nurses. She was a nurse, statistician, sanitarian, social reformer, and scholar. * she was politically astute, intelligent, and single-minded. * Although she was opposed to using church affiliation as a criterion for admision to nursing programs, her religious beliefs were evident in her dealings with students, whom she admonished to work, work, work, because  « if there is no cross, there is no crown  » * Another of nursing’s great modern leaders is Lavinia Lloid Dock * She was concerned with the many problems plaguing nursing, warning that male dominance in the health field was the major problem confronting the nursing profession.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Challenges Facing Managers in Change Process

There are change management models and research still relevant for the 21st Century. The problem however is not with their relevance or their worth, the problem and challenge facing organizational leaders, organizational development experts and researchers relate to the speed and complexity of change required today. (Mildred Golden Pryor, Sonia Taneja, John Humphreys, Donna Anderson, Liza Singleton – Challenges facing change management 2008). Today, change is constant and organization leaders who anticipate change rapidly and responsibly are successful. However, organizational leaders who anticipate change and invent the future are even more successful because those who invent the game are the leaders in their industry, however there are other organizations that are just followers and adapt to change while there are those that do not even survive. According to MTD Training of 2010, in business, change means moving from one way of doing things to another way of doing them. Not every change has to be managed; every organization will need to make a decision about whether or not to employ change management strategies based, in part on how much risk would be associated with not doing so. Change management is an approach to transitioning individuals, teams, and organizations to a desired future state. It is to make something different. You can cause something to change, or you can bring change upon yourself. (Mildred et al, 2008) The process of change impacts on the whole organization and on all individuals working there. Change processes majorly influence: what the organization does, the way the organization does things, the way all business units of the organization communicate and share information, (Problems in Managing Change, Oliver Recklies). This is the manager’s challenge to make things work. Human resource management has an important role in any change process. Change always needs people: for developing objectives, for identifying the need for change, for developing solutions and for implementing these solutions. Technology can support and influence change, but it can never replace people. Still people are to operate the machines, make and implement decisions, not technology or machines. Another challenge of managing change is that there is no chance to ‘undo’ mistakes once they were made. If you allocate resources in an inefficient way, you still have the option to provide additional resources in order to achieve your objective, but there might be wasted resources due to misallocation. If you once failed to make your employees participate in the change process, motivate them into accepting the changes, you will hardly be able to motivate them again. The figure below shows clearly the complexity and scope of change management: Managing change is a challenge that involves coordinating different areas in the organization and the Human Resource has to help employees own the changes alongside quality management, project management, corporate development and usually with a lot to do in Information Technology to have a new, changed organization. Planning and managing change, both cultural and technological, is one of the most challenging elements of a manager's job (Prosci, Neutralizing change threats in the New Year, 2008). Despite these challenges, managers need to be aware that organizations change in a number of dimensions that often relate to one another and can take any direction in the organization. These dimensions include †¢Extent of planning: Although experts differ about how much change can be planned, managers still need to take steps to set up conditions that permit and even encourage change to occur. Degree of change: Changes may be incremental (relatively small, involving fine?tuning processes and behaviors within just one system or level of the organization) or quantum (significant change altering how a company operates). †¢Degree of learning: This dimension relates to the degree to which organizational members are actively involved in learning how to plan and implement change while helping solve an existing problem. †¢Target of change: Organizational change programs can vary with respect to the hierarchical level or functional area of which the change is targeted. Some changes are designed to influence top management and assist them in becoming stronger leaders. Other change programs may involve basic learning, such as customer services techniques for lower level employees. †¢Organization's structure: If it is very stiff and bureaucratic, there may be a need for emphasis on policies, procedures, and rules. Some organizations are very stiff and bureaucratic and may need to â€Å"loosen up. † Other organizations may suffer from lack of organization structure. They may need to emphasize policies, procedures, and rules. Regardless of which forces that cause organizations to see the need for change, organizational leaders, including managers, continue to struggle to maintain or increase their company’ competitive advantage as rapid changes occur from both the external and internal environments. One of the challenges managers face is successfully implementing initiatives that will lead to change and reactions to the fairness of the change implementation, specifically whether the implementation process was handled fairly or not. Cobb et al – 1995) A 2007 benchmarking study â€Å"Best Practices in Change Management† identified poor support and alignment with middle management as one of the big challenges in managing change. This followed other factors considered as obstacles to change including; ineffective sponsorship and resistance from employees. Managers may resist change and this implies not effectively supporting their employees through change. One of the main culprits for thi s obstacle is the manager dilemma. The manager dilemma is a result of two forces at work on managers and supervisors during times of organizational change. First, managers and supervisors are themselves being impacted by the change and they must embrace, internalize and adopt the change to their own work. Second, they must support their employees during the change as well, helping them to embrace and adopt the new solution. During changes in the organization, the managers are often wearing both the â€Å"agent of change† hat and the â€Å"recipient of change† hat. Add to these challenges the fact that middle and front-line managers are critical to sustaining the day-to-day operations of the business and often feel overloaded with that task alone. This could lead to unprofessional management of stakeholders affected by change. Project teams, support functions (like communication, Human Resource, training and development groups) and senior leaders often only wear the â€Å"agent of change† hat, while front-line employees and those who ultimately adopt the change wear only the â€Å"recipient of change† hat. Managers and supervisors wear both hats and the result being that they have the most difficult role in times of change. Unfortunately, their duel role is often overlooked and neglected to the detriment of project and employee well-being. Workload and speed of change process becomes too big for the manager. Resistance to change is a very big challenge to managers, this is due to reasons like the proposed change ppearing to violate values/ethics or culture generally, the inertia may already exist in the system and change is not easily blended in, the proposed changes may represent uncertainty in different dimensions, there may also be a misunderstanding of proposed changes, fear of loss usually on the side of stake holders, threat of security of organizational members or employees in terms of their jobs, also when personal antagonism exists among group members, when there is lack of confidence in the change sponsor(s) or the change agent(s), lack of participation among team members, fa ilure to see the need for change, when timing is very poor, when there is a disruption of social relationships, at times the proposed change could also upset power balances, resistance may also be due to informal organizational pressure against the change, sometimes a belief that the change is a form of criticism about the way things have been done could cause resistance and sometimes there is a perception that benefits may result if there is a strong resistance to change. Resistance may be a very big challenge that the manager alone may not be able to handle alone. Sometimes managers delegate the whole responsibility to manage the change to employees and only expect to get progress reports from them; this usually may become a very big challenge if things do not go as planned or if the employee does not understand the whole change. The employee does not actually have a responsibility to manage change, the employee's responsibility is to do their best, which is different for every person and depends on a wide variety of factors like health, maturity, stability, experience, personality, motivation, etc. Responsibility for managing change is with management and executives of the organization and they must manage the change in a way that employees can cope with it. The manager has a responsibility to facilitate and enable change, and all that is implied within that statement, especially to understand the situation from an objective standpoint which may mean to ‘step back', and be non-judgemental, and then to help people understand reasons, aims, and ways of responding positively according to employees' own situations and capabilities. Increasingly the manager's role is to interpret, communicate and enable and not to instruct and impose, which nobody really responds to well. Some managers are misunderstood when they introduce change; this is also a challenge that might lead to conflict with employees. Using expressions like mindset change', and ‘changing people's mindsets' or ‘changing attitudes', often indicates a tendency towards imposed or enforced change and it implies strongly that the organization believes that its people currently have the ‘wrong' mindset, which is never the case. If people are not approaching thei r tasks or the organization effectively, then the organization has the wrong mindset, not the people. Change such as new structures, policies, targets, acquisitions, disposals, re-locations, etc. , all create new systems and environments, which need to be explained to people as early as possible, so that people's involvement in validating and refining the changes themselves can be obtained. Management may lack the necessary training, empathy and facilitative capability which are priority areas since managers are crucial to the change process, it becomes a bigger challenge if managers merely convey and implement policies from above without knowing much about them and because people and teams need to be empowered to find their own solutions and responses, with facilitation and support from managers, and tolerance and compassion from the leaders and executives, management and leadership style and behaviour are more important than clever process and policy. Employees need to be able to trust the organization and it becomes the manager’s challenge to ensure there is trust between. Managers must agree and work with these ideas, or change is likely to be very painful, and the best people might be lost in the process. In some situations, when people are confronted with the need or opportunity to change, especially when it's ‘enforced', as they may see it, by the or ganization, they can become emotional and so can the managers who try to manage the change. This challenge may require diffusing the emotional feelings, taking a step back and encouraging objectivity, to enable sensible and constructive dialogue. This is the managers’ and trainers’ challenge to find a solution with help of analogies to assist themselves and other staff to look at change in a more detached way. Just as the state of ‘unconscious incompetence', needs to be developed into ‘conscious competence' to provide a basis for training, so is a person's subjective emotion need to be developed into objectivity before beginning to help them handle change. Some managers are not patience and tolerant enough when managing change and yet it is a challenge where the manager is required to help people in these situations to see things differently, bit by bit. This sort of gradual staged change can be found everywhere in the living world. Strong resistance to change is often rooted in deeply conditioned or historically reinforced feelings that require a lot of patience and tolerance towards the people to whom change is being introduced to, the managers ought to have these qualities if they are to manage the change process effectively. It was discovered that people who easily welcome change are not generally the best at being able to work reliably, dependably and follow processes. The reliability/dependability capabilities are directly opposite character traits to mobility or adaptability capabilities. Managers may face the challenge of such people to ensure they can be reliable. Certain industries and disciplines have a high concentration of staff who need a strong reliability/dependability personality profile, for example, health services and nursing, administration, public sector and government departments, utilities and services; these sectors will tend to have many staff with character profiles who find change difficult and as a manager, to help them into change is your challenge. Age is another factor. Erik Erikson's Psychosocial Theory helps to understanding that people's priorities and motivations are different depending on their stage of life. The manager needs to understand people's needs, at different age levels to better be able to manage change, however, this can be a very big challenge for managers especially dealing with older people who are usually rigid and do not believe anything other than what they already know. People's strengths and weaknesses differ and not everyone welcomes change. It requires time to understand the people you are dealing with, and how and why they feel like they do, before you take action, but the manager may not have that time especially if they are faced with such a rapidly changing world, where a delay might give competitors a chance to override and gain a very big competitive edge. This may be a challenge that requires high skill level and competence for the manager. Managers today have a challenge of fast changing environments where by planning, implementing and managing change in a fast-changing environment is increasingly the situation in which most organizations now work. Dynamic environments such as these require dynamic processes, people, systems and culture, especially for managing change successfully, effectively optimizing organizational response to market opportunities and threats. Some organizations may not have capacity to be dynamic due to different reasons and therefore managers face the bigger challenge. In his book, Change management, 2010, Prof. Dr. Olaf Passeheim identified a challenge due to technological changes today. The International and dynamic situation of the global market has created a big need for change, and this has created a challenge of deregulations which have increased the competitive pressure and minimized monopoly power. Managers today work in such very rapid environment where the organization itself might not be in a position to go with the pace, for example, telecommunication companies like MTN, if it does not have financial capacity to afford the required equipments and software that go with the trend or the required skills to operate them. In any case, the manager has to find a way, or lose the game, an impact that may last and could permanently damage the company. Economic ups and downs are a big challenge, they have such a huge impact on organizations and markets for example, the most recent financial crisis that led to cutbacks and reduced employment, managers face the challenge of neutralizing the situation and making necessary change decisions to cope with the situation. (Passeheim – Change Management 2010) Changes in an organization where workforce is never static for example due to changes in gender, age, education, in and out employees create challenges for managers to go with changes because there will always be a need to redesign work, jobs and working groups, to ensure matching job requirements and skills. High financial costs of replacing, upgrading or buying new equipments which the organization may not be in position to procure, this will delay change process for a cost restrictive business. New systems may also fail and the organization is forced to sell the new equipments at reduced prices, pay employees for redundancy or dismiss them with a package because computers replaced them, training that comes with a cost, managers may have to resist implementation of any changes to cut on the costs involved, a decision that might challenge his capacity as a manager. Lack of analysis of strategic and operative challenge in changing the organization, some managers might blindly decide to make changes without analyzing the weight it holds. Some managers consider strategic plans unimportant and in a way ignore what the operative system is like, changes that are not strategically planned may become disastrous as things are only done as they come, operations may be guess work and yet change is something to be handled with care. There may be some unprofessional use of methods in change process as a result. Insufficient problem awareness, if the manager is trying to go through a change process, but does not exactly know the current problems that may have led to the need for change, it will be a very big challenge for him to make the right and appropriate decisions to implement the changes. Insufficient communication in the organization, if departments and employees do not freely and regularly communicate and even the manager is not interactive enough with employees, yet they ought to know what goes on around, change might come as a surprise for many who may not know why it came, many might resist it or just follow blindly and this could greatly compromising quality. Lack of control by managers, it is a challenge if the manager does not have control over employees, operations, systems due to several factors like limitation from superiors or lack of control skills. In such situation, the manager will find it difficult to even bring about change in the organization. Managing through Change – MTD Training and ventus publishing 2010, suggests other challenges that managers are likely to face in the change process, these include thus: ?Key staff may leave Market place changes may make your new initiative more urgent or less important ?Budget cuts may put a freeze on resources that u are dependant upon for implementation of change ?Legal regulations or requirements might change requiring an adoption to your plan ?Consumer response may fail to meet expectations requiring to reconsider your choice ?Competitors may act in ways that require you to revisit your objectives or vision ?Unexpected technology barrier may arise ?Costs, time, requirements or staff hour requirements may begin to exceed estimates. As manager, facing the above discussed challenges, one may have to scale back, expand or abort the change and any expected outcomes. Flexible is an essential requirement if the company is to survive in a competitive world today.

Monday, July 29, 2019

Socially Responsible Companies in Europe Research Paper - 1

Socially Responsible Companies in Europe - Research Paper Example The paper tells that many companies in various continents treat corporate social responsibility as a key aspect of their company survival technique. It has evolved from being a value-added concept of management to on being among the key concepts. This is because consumers evaluate theirs produces depending on how friendly they are to the environment and their conformance to most of the international laws that business ethics demand be met. Many European companies are among the leading socially responsible companies in the present society. This is true because Europe gets ranked as one of the greatest markets in the world. For this reason, the companies that operate in this zone must be willing to impress their consumers. The FTSE index provides the best tool in monitoring corporate socially responsible companies, in Europe, and the remaining parts of the world. The reshuffle of leading global responsible investment index series provides information on the companies that have adhered to environmental and social laws in the internal business arena. Companies get to fluctuate from one position to another because social laws change daily, and an organization will not be able to conform to each and every that is passed. In addition, not all corporate laws are universal. One of the most common companies that are socially responsible in Europe is Microsoft Europe. This is a company that was invented by Bill Gates and Paul Allen way back in 1975 and has since with co-operation with other companies revolutionized the software computing industry. As a software company, Microsoft does not face common responsibility in terms of social and environmental laws like other production companies. This is because it does not pollute the environment or utilize much of its resources. Despite this, social responsibility has been key to the company because it has since been expanding into different countries that harbor different social values. Microsoft has also been aware of the sec urity issue their customers get to face on the internet, hence introducing free protective softwares such as windows defender. They have also included a vast number of language packs for their software users, hence allowing their products to be used by almost everybody in the world.

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Questions-600-6 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Questions-600-6 - Essay Example Also, both standards differ on the criteria used in derecognizing receivables in that US standard uses loss of control while the international standard combines loss of control and risk and rewards criteria’s. Recovery losses on prior impairments may be recorded by Walton under iGAAP (Barden et al, 2009). On the other hand, under US GAAP, impairment reversals are not allowed. However, the loan balance after impairment is used as the new basis for the loan. Major differences occur in the methods of valuing inventories. US GAAP allows use of LIFO (last in, First out) inventory valuation method while the international standard does not permit LIFO (Barden et al, 2009). Also, US GAAP allows the costs of spoilage and idle capacity in inventory while iGAAP does not. Lastly, iGAAP allows reversal of write downs, if any, in inventories while UA GAAP does not. 10% profit and loss test- The absolute value of the segments reportable profit loss is 10% or more of the greater of the overall reported profit of all segments reporting profits, or the absolute value of the combined reported losses of all segments reporting losses. To examine whether the reported segments are enough we will test the operating segment revenue without the intersegment sales. The threshold here is 75%. Therefore enough segments are reportable segment revenues ≠¥ 75% consolidated revenues. b) Products costs should be matched with its associated product and revenues just as it is the case of annual reporting (Barden et al, 2009). Period costs are charged to earnings when incurred among interim periods. c) Income tax in interim financial statements should be based on the effective tax rate for the entire year for ordinary earnings (Barden et al, 2009). The effective tax rate combines states and federal income tax rates such as capital gains, foreign tax rates

Saturday, July 27, 2019

HIS-102-Western Civ Post 1689 Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

HIS-102-Western Civ Post 1689 - Assignment Example It is also important to note that parliamentary monarchy is bound to constructional provisions of the state, but there are power exceptions in the event of constitutional crisis (Witmer 42). United Kingdom is a good example of a parliamentary monarch. Political absolutism is organized like a monarchy, but political power is unlimited and centralized to the ruler. In other words, the political leader has authority over the state. Absolutism lacks constitutional provisions, thereby directing governance and leadership to the discretion of the political leader. Examples of absolutism include Nazi Germany and North Korea’s political system. In most cases, political absolutism exhibits critical practices of dictatorship. In a parliamentary monarchy, one family could dominate the monarch for centuries while elective positions are shared by the legislature. On the other hand, political absolutism is likely to result in the violation of human rights. In this respect, a parliamentary monarchy is better than political absolutism because it is constitutional in

Summary Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 18

Summary - Essay Example consider different stakeholders involved in tourism industry; government and tourism industry have a strong influence of content of education in tourism. Tourism higher education is strongly connected to tourism industry, which consists of small private business units. Currently, most of them employ unskilled or low-skilled workers because of the lack of educated staff initialling the need in tourism higher education. At the same time, reviewing different studies, Ayikoru, Tribe & Airey (2009) that as a young field of research and educational program, tourism higher education faces several issues. In many cases a degree in tourism is not required by most employers because they do not think it is necessary. Finally, employers do not rush to hire graduates who have those degrees. All these issues in tourism higher education undergo changes under ideological influences which come from their environment. Previously researchers focused on the development of tourism higher education by their trials to integrate different approaches to content of education and curriculum design. They applied marketing approach to tourism curricula and designed appropriate four year program. They advocated that it was necessary to engage tourism professionals to education in order to tie those curricula to life. Overall, all precious studies in tourism education manifested this sphere as a branch of business. At the same time, ideology in context of tourism higher education was not studies in detail. Ayikoru, Tribe & Airey (2009) fill this gap by their extensive research explaining what influences the aims and their representation in this sphere of education. Government, which is the main representative of ideology in any country, has a direct influence on education. Government creates norms which are applied to different institution including tourism education. These norms render particular values which redefine important elements of education. These ideological implications influence

Friday, July 26, 2019

Hospitality Learning Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Hospitality Learning - Essay Example From the early days, medieval monasteries in Europe intellectually offered hospitality to travelers, especially pilgrims. The early inns in Europe were profit-making ventures that offered public rooms where merchants would sit to discuss their businesses. Apparently, the hospitality industry has followed travelers’ paths. In about year 1200, there arose inn-keeping that saw English restaurants considered as the finest globally during the industrial revolution. With the birth of the first class Termand house hotel in Boston in 1829, providing guestroom, lockable door and free soap, the modern hotel industry emerged. By the 1950s, new concepts such as floatels, boatels and motels had been introduced. By 1960, a majority of hotel owners merged with large chains such as Hilton and franchising their hotels, making them larger. This marked the birth of the modern hotel industry across the world (Talwar, 22). At this point, it would be important to note the role that Hotel Management course plays in opening up one’s mind to appreciate that hospitality encompasses more than just hotels. Hospitality has been categorized into four segments: transportation, commercial recreation, food service and lodging. Therefore, whereas travelers could use hotels for dining and accommodation, restaurants would provide meals only. Vacation ownership is another plan in the hospitality industry where customers buy a property, normally a residence at a resort and acquire the right of use for the lease period. Resorts are places meant for vacation, daytime getaway or relaxation and could offer live entertainment, cosmetic treatment, meals and massages. Another increasingly attractive field has been the cruise ship where passenger ships with amenities to serve leisure purposes are employed in leisure voyages with the various destinations along the way also being attractive. Whatever the choice of hospitality, Hotel Management emphasizes on the importance of

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Professionalism in the Classroom Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Professionalism in the Classroom - Essay Example The manner in which teachers dress shows the level of professionalism they exhibit. They are supposed to maintain an appearance that is fit to generate respect from the students in the classroom. Dressing and appearance have three main impacts on the students. Not only do they maintain respect from the students, but also establish the teacher as an authority figure and solicit credibility. Research shows that students tend to model their behavior or appearance from the way they see their teachers or other close authority figures. Proper dress code policy for educators demands that they avoid visible piercings, bright hair colors, and tattoos. For this reason, educators can apply professionalism in the classroom by grooming well, setting high grooming standards and maintaining the same all though. Interaction with the students is another element of professionalism that is applicable in the classroom. With the concern to the student, a thin line separates friendship with students and care as an adult figure (Lawn, 1996). As a professional responsibility, educators/teachers should enforce school or classroom rules as a priority without compromise. They should not be driven by the desire to get students to like them or create a good relationship at the expense of instilling the required educational principles in them. They can show professionalism by executing their mandate in the best way possible without undue influence to control the execution. Additionally, professionalism in the classroom comes in the form of shunning favoritism and discrimination of pupils. For a teacher exhibiting professional qualities in the classroom, all students are equal and should be given equal opportunities to contribute and learn (Green, 2011). Thirdly, teachers can apply professionalism in the classroom through their educational strategies they embrace for their students. It requires them to have proper classroom management skills for effective

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Sociology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 7

Sociology - Essay Example Urged by his therapist to see his son, Bree and Toby then went on a journey that saw the development of their relationship, first, from being based into a mutual respect then into a father and son’s. Clearly, TransAmerica primary theme is that of self-discovery. For example, Bree’s character is full of contradiction and that he has difficulty in making decisions for his life. This is not surprising given that he is quite unusual for being transsexual and that he is forced to deal with conflicting and antagonistic social messages. He has also a very conservative mindset and, interestingly, along with his positive attitude, this has helped him get over his own crises. We have an entirely different and almost opposite character in Toby. He lacks moral and emotional capacities but he is matured and knows what he wants for his future. In a way, Bree’s and Toby’s characterization were complex that everyone in the audience could identify with an aspect of their personality. The movie was unique not simply for its entertainment value but, most importantly, for its social relevance. The Dreams of Sparrows is a documentary about Iraq by Iraqi filmmaker Hayder Daffar. The backdrop of this film is the post-Saddam era, and that it aims to document what the war has brought to Iraq as a country and to its people. Daffar’s attempt at searching for the truth in the film takes us with him as he cover all walks of life in Iraq, starting off with the arts and culture of Baghdad where we encounter Iraqi painters, writers and filmmakers and we learn their perspectives and point of views. As the film continues, the interviews proceed on discussing the politics of occupation as well as the Iraqi resistance. It concluded with the battle over Falluja and the devastating death of one of the crew members of the documentary. Interestingly, at the end of the film the filmmakers did a series of self interviews which was made

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Percussion Ensemble Concert Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Percussion Ensemble Concert - Essay Example While the same group of musicians performed all the specific percussion tracks, there was considerable variety within these performances. The first performance was of Christopher Rouse’s Ku-Ka-Ilimoku. Even as there was a large amount of musicians, the majority of the musicians in this piece or participated in minimal ways. Instead the main focus was on a group of 7-8 musicians. These musicians implemented snares, timpani drums, and a variety of wood percussion instruments. The sound was clearly influenced by Polynesian tribal songs. In this way the rhythm advanced through an upbeat pace, as if the ensemble was performing tribal rituals for a war hunt. The pulsating and upbeat rhythm remained consistent throughout the song. In large part the melody and thematic undercurrents were established through juxtapositions between the specific percussion players. For instance, numerous times the snare and timpani would stop playing and the only thing that would be heard were the log dr ums and mallets. Still, in these instances the song’s high tempo was maintained. ... While the previous song had a robust and rough around the edges feel, this song was considerably more fragile. Indeed, I considered that the disparity of these songs was so great that outside of a concert hall they would never be performed in the same setting. Even though this song was fragile and minimal, the use of the xylophone allowed the percussion ensemble to produce more intricate and enjoyable melodies. David Skidmore’s Ritual Music followed this song. This percussion track primarily implemented the xylophone and timpani drums. One of the most notable aspects of this track was the minimalist beginning. In these regards, the only thing the audience could hear was the clinging of the xylophone. After a few beats the rest of the ensemble joined in the track. To a large part this track was the most experimental track that was performed throughout the night. The rhythm greatly varied from low tempo to upbeat and frantic. There additionally was not a regular melody to follow , as the musicians instead focused on texturing the soundscape through innovative percussive techniques. Edgar Varese’s Ionisation and Christopher Deane’s Parallel Isometry followed this tracks. Ionisation used the most traditional percussion arrangement, including snare drums, mallets, cymbals, timpani, and wood block. The song started off with a dampened sound, as if people were wandering around in the dark. In large part this was interesting for the contrast of instrumentation in creating the unique rhythmic progressions. This muffle sound ultimately gave way to a cacophony of noise. The final track was Parallel Isometry. While Ionisation used a rough and chaotic sound, this track began with a

Monday, July 22, 2019

Genetically Modified Foods Essay Example for Free

Genetically Modified Foods Essay Not many Americans actually read the nutrition facts on the labels of the products when they shop at supermarkets. As well as most of them consume junk food on daily basis. American society is caught up in the world where everything has to come fast, from the electronics to fast food restaurants. Nowadays, nobody packs lunch, people got so used to going out and buying sandwich at Mc Donald’s or Carl’s Jr. only for a dollar something. Nobody needs spend time cooking, nobody needs to drive far. Fast food restaurants are on every corner offering everyone cheap and fast food. However, most of those restaurants use genetically modified meat. Health Minister Datuk Chua Jui Meng revealed that Ministry survey found 51% of the chicken samples which were bought from different town places to contain nitrofuran at levels up to 4,000% above the Veterinary Department’s guideline level. Genetically modified foods not only have great impact and harm on humans but also on the animals and environment and global economy. Genetically-modified foods (GM foods) have made a big splash in the news lately. European environmental organizations and public interest groups have been actively protesting against GM foods for months, and recent controversial studies about the effects of genetically-modified corn pollen on monarch butterfly caterpillars1, 2 have brought the issue of genetic engineering to the forefront of the public consciousness in the U. S. Mutation of animal’s DNA has stress on animal. Cows, pigs and especially chickens suffer great impact on their bodies. Chickens are not able to fly and walk because of the growth hormones that make them grow within days. Hormone makes them grow fat; however they are unable to develop strong bones or muscles. Hormones and other â€Å"growth helpers† have also potential human health impacts, including allergens, transfer of antibiotic resistance markers, mutation on genetic level, cancer. For years, people have unknowingly eaten hamburgers and other ground beef containing filler- beef trimming mixed with ammonium hydroxide gas- to kill bacteria and salmonella. It has also been routinely served in school, and until recently some fast-food burgers were made with meat with pink slime. There is also impact on the environment, transformation of crops that animals eat. Animals eat genetically modified crops that develop harmful diseases in their bodies. For example, piglets drink milk with synthetic gene that increases their growth however harms their immune system. Pesticides that are added to watering system of the crops, help crops grow better and faster, however take the enzymes that make them be healthy and organic. Farm animals that eat nonorganic food don’t get enough nutrients to their body. Americans need to start thinking about their health. Many people in America are obese and have diabetes. The main reason is because they eat junk food, and junk food meat and crops are genetically modified. In our society nowadays no one wants to accept that a hamburger for one dollar is not good food. Its only cheese in a mouse trap. It is cheap but it is not organic, it doesn’t have nutrients your body needs, it’s complete fat. People and FDA need to take serious action, we need to notify people about what they are eating. We need to advertise and support law that will enforce labeling on genetically modified foods. Americans need to start thinking about their future generations and their health. If right now percentage is so high on people who have diabetes type two, think about what it is going to be in future ten years? We all need to stand up and fight for what is right. Farm animals, environment and humans suffer great loss from the hormones and antibiotics that farmers supply them with. On biological level enzymes and DNA change. Therefore, we change our bodies without thinking twice about it. Society needs to be informed about consequences. GM foods are much cheaper, grow faster and have better resistance. Even though GM food is more accessible, it doesn’t always mean it is healthy for a person. Many statistics show that people become obese and have higher percentage of cholesterol because they consume GM foods. Increased food security for growing populations. Foods that have pesticides in them can develop not only biological transformation in animal cells, but also human cells. But there is also new products growing techniques. New techniques can be only helpful to corporations to produce bigger amounts of food products. People can have more products and store and will never run out. So, corporations can produce foods on massive scale (no starvation for people). Even though, corporations will get richer, they will harm the human health. FDA doesn’t restrict factories from adding growth hormones, steroids and antibiotics to animals and crops. Based on the research that I gathered there were a lot of things that shocked me. I never knew that meat we eat is awfully generated like that. Poor farm animals die from their obese bodies and pills that people supply them with. No matter, how many counter arguments a person can say, It is not right to torture animal like that. And not only animals suffer such awful treatments. Humans as well get sickness and diseases from eating awful food like that. Many big corporations argue using advertisement that it prevents crops and animals for having extra diseases when they take antibiotics or growth hormones. However, that way animal’s body changes its course of growing. For example, image humans grow as fast as chicken grown in nine days, it will be awful. But what is very funny, that people who eat those kinds of foods get really obese over small period of time. Farmers say that there is more nutritious in genetically modified foods, I disagree. Studies have proven that only organic meets have all the nutrients that a person needs. Genetically modified food has many effects on human health. Person can develop diseases such as diabetes, heart problems and liver failure. I don’t think so parents want their future generations to suffer and die from chronic diseases that come from what they eat. At this point, every American consumes genetically modified food on daily basis. Even if the label on the apple doesn’t say that some kind of hormone was used to increase the growth, still everyone knows that apples don’t grow in the middle of January in Wyoming. Many supermarkets try to advertise that the meat they sell is organic, however not every label says that antibiotics were given to the animal when it was growing. Society and FDA needs to take actions and help local stores to produce more organic products. Work cited Antibiotic Use in Animal Agriculture Is Dangerous and Unnecessary. An HSUS Report: Human Health Implications of Non-Therapeutic Antibiotic Use in Animal Agriculture. Humane Society of the United States, 2009. Rpt. in Antibiotics. Noah Berlatsky. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2011. Opposing Viewpoints. Gale Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 6 Nov. 2012. Web ElBoghdady, Dina. Judge Orders FDA to Revisit Decision Not to Ban Some Antibiotics in Animal Feed. Washington Post 5 June 2012. Gale Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 6 Nov. 2012. Web TWN Third World Network. â€Å"The dangers of antibiotics in animals feed† by Martin is the Director of the Third World Network. Web We are what we eat, so beware of additives. Philadelphia Inquirer [Philadelphia, PA] 31 Mar. 2012. Gale Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 10 Oct. 2012. Byline: Melanie Burney. Web Kaufman, Marc. Worries Rise Over Effect of Antibiotics in Animal Feed; Humans Seen Vulnerable To Drug-Resistant Germs. Washington Post 17 Mar. 2000: A01. Gale.

Ulysses meaning Odysseus Essay Example for Free

Ulysses meaning Odysseus Essay â€Å"Ulysses† is a dramatic monologue written by one of the most famous poet Alfred Lord Tennyson in 1883. â€Å"Ulysses† meaning Odysseus in Greek mythology was the king of Ithaca. Odysseus was the leader of the Greek army. His wife was Penelope and his son was Telemechus. Ulysses is characterized as not only very intelligent, heroic and eloquent but also very arrogant. Odysseus and his men sailed into Troy to fight what turned out to be a lengthy battle. Later, Odysseus and the Greek army conquered Troy and set out on their voyage home. On their journey they encountered a series of adventures. Odysseus shares some grievances including dissatisfaction, desire for change, nostalgia and age concern. Tennyson’s characterization of Ulysses with grief, feelings, expressions and misfortunes are reflected in the poem. Odysseus shared beauty and success during his youth. He had an extremely successful past life. He was a handsome man in his prime and endured many exciting adventures. Ulysses describes how he â€Å"drunk delight of battle† (Tennyson 16) with his peers. He talks of â€Å"souls that have toil’d, and wrought, and thought with me† (Tennyson line 46) and the use of rhyme suggests the harmony of his relationship with his peers. This explains that he had endured much suffering and the use of the word ‘thought’ introduces the point that he was a great thinker; he was not only practical with his hands, but also good on his mind. His nostalgia and desire to return to his active past is expressed when he parallels himself to a sword and says, â€Å"how dull it is to pause, to make an end, to rust unburnished, not to shine in use! † (Tennyson lines 22 23) Ulysses is able to dream of one last, glorious adventure within the potential to go out and recapture former self. Ulysses is a poem which explores multiple interactions in which the themes vary on mortality. Motivation and age concern are the part of the poem’s themes as Tennyson explain in the lines â€Å"but every hour is saved from eternal silence† (Tennyson lines 26 27) which portrays the death in eternal silence and he is almost preventing it by making the most of his time. â€Å"For always roaming with a hungry heart† (Tennyson line 12) shows his motivation and also indicates his loss of love as he describes â€Å"match’d with an aged wife† (Kincaid) an ironic image of describing his wife who had been loyal to him during the vast amount of time while he was away on adventure. He also states that the people of his island are a â€Å"savage race† (Kincaid) and says that they â€Å"hoard, and sleep, and feed† (Kincaid). He goes on to say that they â€Å"know not me† (Kincaid) drawing barriers between him and them, as though he is superior. When he says â€Å"I am become a name† (Tennyson 11) shows clear pity as well. The poem is also like a speech given by Odysseus to his sailors, rebelling against his life and conformity, after he reclaimed the throne in Ithaca and explains why he wants to leave Ithaca forever. Ulysses believes that his son ‘Telemechus’ is better for Ithaca than he would be and placed him in charge as the King of Ithaca. Ulysses says â€Å"There lies the port; the vessel puffs her sail† (Tennyson line 44) which means he also feels the ocean his boat calling him for one more adventure. He tries to inspire his men by saying â€Å"Come, my friends, T is not too late to seek a newer world† (Tennyson lines 56 57). The poem is ended by Ulysses telling his men â€Å"not to yield† (Tennyson 70) but to rebel and never conform to society. Tennyson is very successful in creating a very powerful image of Ulysses. The poem celebrates the indomitable spirit of a man. Ulysses loves travelling by sea and he is used to a life of adventure and change. The life of a family man with his responsibilities of a king is dull for him. He yearns to recover the glory of the past by returning to Ithaca. He tries to persuade his earlier fellow men to join him in his new adventure. He wants to break free of his monotonous life and return to a life of excitement. At the end Ulysses placed his son in charge as the King of Ithaca and set his sails west to an untold adventure. Works Cited James R, Kincaid. â€Å"Ulysses† Victotianweb. org 28 March 2001. 29 March 2009 http://www. victorianweb. org/authors/tennyson/kincaid/ch3d. html Tennyson, Alfred. â€Å"Ulysses† Readprint. com 29 March 2009 http://www. readprint. com/work-1426/Lord-Alfred-Tennyson

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Development of Sustainable Dwellings in Wales

Development of Sustainable Dwellings in Wales This study focuses on the development of a sustainable retrofit plan for a typical dwelling in Wales. There are two parts that have been discussed in this report. The first section is a full development plan to reduce the fuel cost with a budget of  £30K and the second is a calculation of carbon footprint of a building element (wall insulation materials). The project was predicted to achieve 70% reductions in CO2 emissions for a cost of some  £26K.Furthermore, the energy cost would be reduced by 85% if the development plan was implemented in full. Stepwise approach has been used to measure the performance. Replacing the heating system and adding more insulation for the roof, walls and floor are considered the significant improvement of the project with reasonable payback periods. The embodied CO2 emission for three different insulation materials has been calculated. Rockwool has the lowest rate 833 kg co2e compared to 875, 1737 to the Sheeps wool and Expanded Polystyrene respectivel 1.1 Background 1.1.1 Introduction: Indeed, there is a huge pressure on governments to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. Paris agreement, is a recent agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, was agreed to keep the global warming below 2 °C (1). British government aims to have an 80% reduction by 2050. This means a huge improvement is needed in energy efficiency of our existing dwelling. The recent report shows that over 45% of total greenhouse emissions were emitted from dwelling building (2).The domestic sector accounted for 29 % of the total energy consumption in 2015(3).Furthermore, residential was ranked the fourth in the amount of greenhouse gas emission according to national statistics(4) the figure below show the greenhouse gas emission by different sectors. Figure (1) Greenhouse gas emission by sector (DECC), UK, 2014 1.1.2 The property: This house was built in 1930s and has three bedrooms with South-West facing and located in Wales. The external walls are cavity wall with plaster but without any insulation, the floor has no insulation, the roof is slate tiles with 50mm insulation between the rafters. The windows are double glazed, with a 6mm air gap, PVC frames and with U value of 2.8.The doors are also PVC frame with U value of 2.8. The heating system is an old mains gas boiler with 65% efficiency, the capacity of hot water tank 120 litre. 1.1.3 Performance prior to refurbishment: This house has a SAP rating of 45, below the national average of 48 and therefore there is a need to improve its performance to achieve 80 % of reduction in emissions as well as the annual fuel cost. This could be achieved by reducing the heat loss through the walls, floor, roof as well as windows and doors. 1.2 Development plan There are two factors that are set to dramatically transform the way in which building was designed and fabricated in the early twenty-first century-insulation and energy. There is a need to maximise the insulation levels of the buildings while at the same time rethinking the ways in which building consumes the energy needed to run them. Step 1: Upgrading the heating system : Modern boilers are more efficient because they burn the fuel very efficiently. The fuel type also has a direct impact on reducing the fuel bill as well as carbon emissions. The condensing gas boiler (90% efficacy) with room thermostat is the best choice in this matter. Step 2: Insulating the roof, floor and walls: The challenge in adding insulation levels in domestics is to choose the right materials that fit for purpose. Understanding the properties of the materials and when it is suited to fitting in the attic space is essential. Moreover, price, fire safety, chemicals involved and end of life should also be considered when choosing the material (5). -Floor: Phenolic foam insulation would offer the best performance of any readily available panel (6). It also has less impact on room size where dry-lining is considered. Kingspans Kooltherm phenolic is the good option for floors. The designed U value for floor is 0.2 W/m2K. -Cavity wall insulation: Filling the cavity gap between the inner and outer blocks with appropriate insulation material has been considered. However, it is highly likely that insulating the cavity alone will not be enough to achieve the required U-values. For this reason, adding internal or external insulation should also be concerned to achieve the targeted U-value. The designed u value for injected insulation with external wall insulation (Rockwool) is 0.49 (W/m2K). -Roofs: mineral wool insulation is highly recommended for roof insulation, 160 mm is added between rafters and 100 mm below them. The designed U value in this case is 0.15 (W/m2K). Step 3: Minimising infiltration (disuse chimneys, draught proofing). Ventilation is needed in traditional buildings to help the fabric breathe. Chimneys would have contributed greatly to the ventilation rate, so it is advised, in some cases, that chimneys could to be left open to allow natural ventilation. However, disused chimney, if left fully open, will often cause more heat loss. It also can let water in, if it is uncapped. Some methods can be recommended: CAPS: a cap at the top of a chimney will prevent water ingress but allow through ventilation. However, caps can cause huge damage and be very dangerous if they blow off in case of windy weather. Balloons: is the quickest and cheapest way to close of a flue that is not being used, but it is awkward and dirty when removing and reinstalling them in place. Step 4: Reducing the energy consumption for lighting (LED). LED lighting is extremely energy efficient technology and has changed the future of lighting worldwide. The residential LED lighting use less 70% energy and last 25 times longer life (7). The value of lighting gain in the SAP calculation (67) was reduced by 70% of the original value. Step 5: Installing renewable sources (PV panel). The solar photovoltaic (PV) has many advantages that a householder can benefit from. The main benefit is to cut electricity bill as well as sell the left over electricity to the grid. Not to mention, the sunlight is free and that means nearly zero carbon footprint (8). It is advised the Monocrystalline system with 20% efficiency is required to generate around 2700kWh annually. This system requires 21 square meter roof space and makes saving around 12p/kWh from electricity bill. However, if a householder doesnt use the electricity produced, exported to grid or store it in batteries are the only two options available. The storage technology has been ignored because the cost and complexity with installing at dwelling. The exported tariff is 3.1 p/kWh, but this figure could be ignored as the power generated by the system would be absorbed by the site demand. Step 6: UPVC triple glazing windows The huge heating loss in domestics occurs through windows. There is a growing range in this area to improve the thermal performance of this element. Triple glazing is the best options that could be considered to achieve the reduction target. This element has an excellent U-value (one or less) which provide a decrease in energy consumption as well as reducing CO2 emissions. Step 7: UPVC high efficient door It is suggested that the original doors on the property, with a U-value of 2.8 W/m2.K, should be replaced with a high performance triple glazed door, reducing the U-value of the surface by 65%. 1.3 Alternatives options Other systems were also considered but rejected due to the cost-effectiveness as well as the project size. For example: Mechanical ventilation with heat recovery (MVHR): is widely used for highly energy efficient buildings in the UK. However, the complexity to install and the high capital cost, the system was ignored. Under floor heating: is a modern technology that allows the householder to enjoy the luxury of the warm floor during the winter. In other hand, under floor system is pricey to install in retrofit house and more difficult to maintain if any problem occurs. Wind turbine: roof-mounted and freestanding mast wind turbines are two types that can be installed in the project. The micro wind turbine was rejected because the space limitation, the turbine noise and save the birds in the local area. 1.4 Analysis and evaluation SAP rating: the graph (1) illustrates the improvement of the SAP rating though the development plan. It is clearly seen that the property has been developed from 45.65 to over 90 and that means the house can achieve band B in the EPC. CO2 emissions rate: As it can be seen from the graph (2) below, a significant decrease in CO2 emissions though the development plan. The house would benefit of 70% reduction on CO2 emissions as the plan reduced CO2 emissions rate from 71.35 to below 22.77. Energy cost: The annual fuel cost has been reduced from  £1354 to below  £200 as graph (3) indicates. A reduction of 85% of annual energy bill will be achieved if the designed plan is implemented. The projects budget was  £30K; however, the full money spent in this plan is around  £26K. The simple payback method has been used for financial evaluation. The full plan will require 20 years to recover the cost of the project. The plan is designed in stepwise to achieve higher performance as well as keep the cost low as much as possible. The graph (4) shows that SAP rating improvement against the cost for each step. Replacing windows and doors would cost over  £7000 and  £1000 respectively; with having longer payback periods (graph 5), that took them to the end of the list. Note: Full data can be found in the appendix (table 3). Graph (1) SAP rating during the development plan Graph (2) CO2 emissions rate through the development plan Graph (3) Annual energy cost through the development plan Graph (4) SAP improvement vs. Cost Graph (5) Simple payback calculation for development plan 1.5 Conclusion The project will benefit significantly by replacing the heating system as well as adding more insulation for the roof, floor and walls. However, replacing windows the doors have slight effect on the house performance as it costs more with less benefit. Installing photovoltaic panels will make a huge impact on the project performance. It would make saving over 55% from the energy bill if 3 KWp panel was installed. 2.1 Introduction The thermal resistance provided by insulation materials used in the building fabric means that the energy savings from insulation made during the operation of the building far outweigh its embodied environmental impacts. Also, insulation products tend to have a very low density and, therefore, when reviewed in a building context, only relatively small masses of materials are used. However, if insulations are not assessed with a whole-building life-cycle approach they may not appear to be an inherently low environmental impact material, because of the resources and energy used during manufacture, the use of blowing agents and the lack of reuse/recycling at the end of life. This study will illustrate the environmental impact of three different types of insulation; it also provides the carbon footprint calculation for the project that was refurbished in the Part 1. 2.2 Literature survey The Green guide classifies the insulation used in the construction into: Non-renewable organic-based insulation such as expanded polystyrene (EPS); this material has conductivity 0.038 W/mK, density 37 kg/m3. It is a rigid, open cell form of polystyrene blown with pentane. EPS is a thermoplastic polymer, so can be reprocessed and recycled more easily than thermoset polymers. Most process waste is recycled but there is limited recycling of postconsumer packaging. Renewable organic plant/animal-derived insulation such as Sheeps wool insulation; it has conductivity 0.039 W/mK, density 25 kg/m3. The sheeps wool that is not suitable for textiles, is used for insulation. The wool needs to be scoured, requiring energy and water, and the resulting pesticide residue from the sheet dip needs treatment. Binders and polyester fibre are required, as well as chemical treatment to prevent moth attack. Mineral wool insulation such as Rockwool; is a medium density insulation product of 45 kg/m3 and has a thermal conductivity of 0.044 W/mK. Rockwool is made of 77% virgin raw material mainly in the form of diabase, gotland stone, lime stone, cement and bauxite. The remaining 23% are classed as waste materials. End-of-life issues for insulation Many insulation types are recyclable at end of life, but do not currently have any recycling system in place for material recovered from construction, refurbishment or demolition. There is evidence that some insulation waste from construction is incorporated elsewhere within the building, rather than being sent for disposal. For most materials, the impact associated with end of life is the disposal impact measured by BRE relating to the amount of material landfilled or incinerated. The BRE methodology also includes the emissions associated with incineration and landfill, including burning of landfill gas. For renewable materials, the end-of-life stage can have a significant impact if the sequestered carbon is released back into the environment through incineration or decay in landfill. Table (1) End-of-life waste destination (reference 11) Insulation End of life waste destination (%) Landfill Incineration Recycled Expanded polystyrene (EPS): 90 9 1 Sheeps wool 100 0 0 Rockwool 40 10 50 2.3 Carbon footprint calculation The construction carbon calculator is used to determine the environmental impact for insulation materials. This tool was downloaded from the governments website (12). CO2 emissions calculation: The table below shows the total amount of co2 emissions for the three types of insulation. Table (2) Carbon footprint calculation for EPS, Sheeps wool and Rockwool Reference Unit Expanded Polystyrene Sheeps wool Rockwool Wall area m2 110 110 110 Insulation thickness Assumption m 0.1 0.1 0.1 Volume of insulation m3 11 11 11 Density Ref (13) kg/m3 37 25 45 Mass kg 407 275 495 Waste 5% Assumption kg 427.35 288.75 519.75 Carbon coefficient Ref(14) kgco2/kg 3.43 2.09 1.12 Embodied CO2 kg co2e 1465.8105 603.4875 582.12 Boundary Ref(14) cradle to gate cradle to gate cradle to grave Transport of material Manufacturer website 200 miles from Kent by road 175 miles from Liverpool by road Non Transport Embodied CO2 kg co2e 19 19 0 Waste destination Ref(11) 90% landfill 100% landfill 50% landfill Waste mass kg 366.3 275 259.875 Waste Embodied CO2 kg co2e 3.19 3.48 1.7 Transport of waste Assumption miles 100 100 100 Transport waste Embodied CO2 kg co2e 0.2 0.2 0.2 Total waste Embodied CO2 kg co2e 3.39 3.68 1.9 Energy consumed Assumption Kwh 200 200 200 Plant CO2 emissions kg co2e 119 119 119 Project duration (days) Assumption 3 3 3 Travel CO2 emissions kg co2e 130 130 130 Total kg co2e 1737.2005 875.1675 833.02 2.4 Conclusion As it can be seen from the previews calculation, the highest embodied CO2 emission is Expanded Polystyrene because of the higher carbon coefficient and end-of-life issue. For that reason EP is out of consideration. Sheeps wool is natural source, absorbing and releasing moisture without decreasing its thermal insulating properties. However, it has more CO2 emissions than Rockwool which also take it out of thought. In addition to Rockwool has less embodied CO2 emissions, it has excellent thermal insulation with more flexibility to install. Mineral wool has also superior fire resistance as well as better acoustic properties. The Paris Agreement main page (2001) Available at: http://unfccc.int/paris_agreement/items/9485.php (Accessed: 14 February 2017). DECC (2011), The Carbon Plan: Delivering Our Low Carbon Future, p.29. Department of Energy and Climate Change. Digest of United Kingdom energy statistics (DUKES). Available at: http://www.decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/statistics/ publications/dukes. Government Statistics (no date) Available at: http://4.https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/496942/2014_Final_Emissions_Statistics_Release.pdf (Accessed: 14 February 2017). Technology Strategy Board, 2014. Reducing energy use in existing homes, a guide to making retrofit work. RETROFIT FOR THE FUTURE, 1, 15. D Pickles, I Brocklebank C Wood, 2010. ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN HISTORIC BUILDINGS: Open fires, chimneys and flues. nglish Heritage, 1, 17. LED Lighting | Department of Energy. 2017. LED Lighting | Department of Energy. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.energy.gov/energysaver/led-lighting. [Accessed 15 February 2017]. R. Sadgrove S.Pester, 2014. Installation of photovoltaic panels on existing flat roofs some lessons learned. BRE Information Papers, IP 8/14, 7. SEI, Retrofitted Passive Homes, 2009. Retrofitted Passive Homes: Guidelines for upgrading existing dwelling in Ireland. Retrofitted Passive Homes, 1, 15. Shorrock L D and Utley J I. Domestic energy fact file 2003,BRE BR 457. Bracknell, IHS BRE Press, 2003. K Albury J Anderson , 2011. Environmental Impact Of Insulation . BRE TRUST, 2011. 10 Government Website. 2007. Construction Carbon Calculator. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/environment-agency/about/procurement. [Accessed 28 February 2017]. http://jablite.co.uk. 2016. Jablite EPS . [ONLINE] Available at: http://jablite.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/Jablite-EPS.pdf. [Accessed 28 February 2017]. Sheep Wool Insulation Premium. 2016. Sheep Wool. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.sheepwoolinsulation.ie/products/premium_insulation_technical.asp. [Accessed 28 February 2017]. Prof.Hammond Jones, Prof.G and C, 2011. The Inventory of Carbon and Energy (ICE). 1st ed. UK: University of Bath Table (3) Full data of the development plan Current Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 Overall Assignment Results Current New boiler Insulated Floor Insulated walls Insulated roof Minimising infiltration LED lighting PV panel UPVC Triple glazing UPVC door Dwelling volume (m ³) 223.6 223.6 223.6 223.6 223.6 223.6 223.6 223.6 223.6 223.6 Effective air change rate 1.2261 1.2261 1.2261 1.22614 1.2261 0.66878 0.6688 0.6688 0.66878 0.668784 Ventilation type 24d 24d 24d 24d 24d 24d 24d 24d 24d 24d Fabric heat loss (W/K ) 309.66 309.66 213.77 130.25 123.37 123.37 123.37 123.37 84.28 82.28 Total fabric heat loss (W/K ) 339.06 339.06 243.17 159.65 152.77 152.77 152.77 152.77 113.68 111.68 HLP (W/m ²K ) 4.2377 4.2377 3.2917 2.46769 2.3998 1.99406 1.9941 1.9941 1.60841 1.588676 Heat gains from water heating, (kWh) 1489.6 1489.6 1489.6 1489.65 1489.6 1489.65 1489.6 1489.6 1489.65 1489.648 Average Internal gains (W) 485.09 485.09 485.09 485.085 485.09 485.085 468.49 468.49 468.494 468.4936 Average Solar gains (W) 339.96 339.96 339.96 339.956 339.96 339.956 339.96 339.96 254.967 254.9673 Mean Internal temperature (C °) 17.534 17.534 18.063 18.6402 18.695 19.0535 19.043 19.043 19.3723 19.39251 Space heating requirement in kWh2/m2/year 203.94 203.94 160.8 119.082 115.45 91.3375 92.201 92.201 72.9319 71.72854 Efficiency of main space heating system 1 (in %) 0.66 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 Efficiency of water heater 0.66 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 Fuel for water heating, kWh 4281.2 3139.5 3139.5 3139.54 3139.5 3139.54 3139.5 3139.5 3139.54 3139.544 Electricity for pumps, fans and electric keep-hot 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Electricity for lighting (calculated in Appendix L) 284.43 284.43 284.43 284.428 284.43 284.428 85.328 85.328 85.3283 85.32833 Energy saving/generation technologies 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -2700 -2700 -2700 Average Fuel costs (p) 8.335 8.335 8.335 8.335 8.335 8.335 8.335 9.306 9.306 9.306 Additional standing charges 174 174 174 174 174 174 174 174 174 174 Total energy cost 1354.5 1050.7 <

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Confucianism, Daoism & Legalism Essay -- essays research papers

Amidst the chaos of political instability and constant warring of the Zhou era, arose many intellectual thinkers that brought such profound impact in the field of politics, religion and philosophy. Even to the day, their influence can be espied in the many matters of China. Confucianism became the paramount school of thinking and later significant philosophies such as Daoism and Legalism gained immense recognition as well. Each party had their own proposals for creating an idealistic political society where the many problems they faced in their everyday lives could be eliminated. All three approaches were very distinct but at the same time, they contained certain similarities as well. In my reasoning, I find that Confucianism and Daoism could be paralleled in many ways to find several common grounds. On the other hand, Legalism goes on to take a more unique approach which was much different from the previous two. Kongzi (Confucius, a Latinized name) was born in 551 B.C.E., to a poor family of the lower nobility. Throughout his life, he relentlessly tried to gain an office with a prominent ruler of the time who was willing to adopt his various concepts. Unfortunately, Confucius died in 479 B.C.E., before such a change ever took place. However, he succeeded in winning over a handful of devote followers who continued his legacy and Confucianism later went on to become one of the most influential thought systems of Chinese history. Of his followers, Mencius and Xunzi became the most renown. Since Confucius did not succeed in completing a manual of his views, these followers had to derive their own interpretations of the system which now formulate, the Analects. The Analects portray an idealized gentleman, and his various duties in terms of the society, family and the rituals. Confucius explains about the way (Dao) which he believed, that if the people accepted its terms and were willing to a bide, they would succeed in creating a utopian society. By the beginning of the common era, another philosophy emerges and gains wide acceptance among the commoners. Daoism, just like the predecessor and also as the name implies, puts emphasis on "the way," that a certain individual is to abide to. Even though the two systems had different concepts about the way, the common denominator of both schools ... ... Morality and benevolence were crucial factors for a successful state, according to Confucianism and Daoism. They also placed great importance for rituals and other traditions. Many practices were continued throughout generations. Legalism believed that such aspects should have no role in the government. According to them, a strong rule with a strict hand was necessary in order to keep the citizens from growing lazy and disrespecting the authority. Out of the three different thought systems, Legalism was a success in the sense that it achieved what the other two systems desperately strove for - the unification of China. "Qin conquered Yan in 226, Wei in 225, Chu in 223, Qu in 221. Now, in 221, it ruled the entire Chinese world and was ready to make that world over in the image of Qin" (Wills 41). Many of the Legalist ideas were quite thought provoking and praiseworthy; they believed in equality for all and government according to merit. However, the system gained a rotten reputation according to the ruthless rule of the First Emperor. Confucianism thus became the official Philosophy, gaining wide acceptance in China.

Friday, July 19, 2019

Teacher Ethics Essay -- moral code ethics ethical educators

Teacher Ethics â€Å"Ethics are defined as a set of principles of right conducts; the rules or standards governing the conduct of a person or the members of a profession† ( Dictionary of the Human Language, 2000). Teachers are often put in situations that require more than just knowing the basic school rules. It is within these situations, that the ethical dilemmas occur. There is not always a right way to deal with many daily problems that face educators, but there are ways to handle situations that are better then others. Teachers should follow and refer to a code of ethics to help teach in the most appropriate and ethical way; as well as a guide to help deal with dilemmas. It is important that teachers give children a fair chance to show their knowledge when assessing. â€Å"The purpose of assessment is to provide feedback that can be used to improve student performance† ( Orange 2000). Teachers assess children to ensure that they are understanding the material, and to make sure they are learning. For young children especially tests should never be the only criteria of assessment. Instructors should always make sure that their assessment is fair. When testing a child, make sure that the testing method used is appropriate for that child. For example, if giving a test that relies on visual aids to administer the test it is important that the teacher is certain that all the children have good enough vision to clearly see the aids. When assessing young children in particular it is important to look for more then simply right or wrong. An in depth look is necessary to see what the children really know before giving them a poor grade. Children’s work needs to critiqued in more then one way to be sure that they really do ... ...o put a leash on teachers' pets. Retrieved November 2, 2002 from http://www.mbhs.edu/silverchips/articles/apr2001favoritism.html . Dictionary of the human language. (2000). Retrieved November 5, 2002 from www.dictionary.com. Goodlad, J. I., Sirotnik, K. A., & Soder, R. (1990). The moral dimensions of teaching. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Gushee, M. (1984). Student discipline policies, 12. 5. Retrieved November 4, 2002. ERIC Digest. Hanson K., & Shwartz W. (1992). Equal mathematics education for female students, 78. 4. Retrieved November 4, 2002. ERIC Digest. Isenberg, J. P., & Jalongo, M. R. (2000). Exploring your role: A practitioner’s introduction to early childhood education. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. Orange, C. (2000). 25 biggest mistakes teachers make and how to avoid them. Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press. Teacher Ethics Essay -- moral code ethics ethical educators Teacher Ethics â€Å"Ethics are defined as a set of principles of right conducts; the rules or standards governing the conduct of a person or the members of a profession† ( Dictionary of the Human Language, 2000). Teachers are often put in situations that require more than just knowing the basic school rules. It is within these situations, that the ethical dilemmas occur. There is not always a right way to deal with many daily problems that face educators, but there are ways to handle situations that are better then others. Teachers should follow and refer to a code of ethics to help teach in the most appropriate and ethical way; as well as a guide to help deal with dilemmas. It is important that teachers give children a fair chance to show their knowledge when assessing. â€Å"The purpose of assessment is to provide feedback that can be used to improve student performance† ( Orange 2000). Teachers assess children to ensure that they are understanding the material, and to make sure they are learning. For young children especially tests should never be the only criteria of assessment. Instructors should always make sure that their assessment is fair. When testing a child, make sure that the testing method used is appropriate for that child. For example, if giving a test that relies on visual aids to administer the test it is important that the teacher is certain that all the children have good enough vision to clearly see the aids. When assessing young children in particular it is important to look for more then simply right or wrong. An in depth look is necessary to see what the children really know before giving them a poor grade. Children’s work needs to critiqued in more then one way to be sure that they really do ... ...o put a leash on teachers' pets. Retrieved November 2, 2002 from http://www.mbhs.edu/silverchips/articles/apr2001favoritism.html . Dictionary of the human language. (2000). Retrieved November 5, 2002 from www.dictionary.com. Goodlad, J. I., Sirotnik, K. A., & Soder, R. (1990). The moral dimensions of teaching. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Gushee, M. (1984). Student discipline policies, 12. 5. Retrieved November 4, 2002. ERIC Digest. Hanson K., & Shwartz W. (1992). Equal mathematics education for female students, 78. 4. Retrieved November 4, 2002. ERIC Digest. Isenberg, J. P., & Jalongo, M. R. (2000). Exploring your role: A practitioner’s introduction to early childhood education. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. Orange, C. (2000). 25 biggest mistakes teachers make and how to avoid them. Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press.

SEC :: essays research papers

The Internet has transformed the computer and communications world like nothing before. The Internet is also known as the world-wide web, which has the capability of gathering information, and can communicate between individuals and their computers no matter where the geographic location. The Internet started some thirty years ago; it has been one the best investments that researchers have spent their time and commitment on. Today millions of people use the internet. The Internet is a widespread information infrastructure. Its history is complicated and its influence reaches not only to the technical fields of computer communications but throughout society as we move toward increasing the use of online tools to accomplish electronic commerce, information acquisition, and community operations. The Internet History The original name of the Internet was the Arpanet. The internet was based on the idea that there was going to be more than one independent network, with the Arpanet as the ground-breaking packet switching network. The Arpanet would soon include ground based packet radio networks, packet satellite networks, and other networks. In this approach, the choice of any individual network technology was not dictated by particular network architecture but rather could be selected freely by a provider and made to work with the other networks. Up until that time there was only one general method for federating networks. This was the traditional circuit switching method where networks would interconnect at the circuit level, passing individual bits on a synchronous basis along a portion of an end-to-end circuit between a pair of end locations. 1   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  1. Cerf, Vinton Pages 10-20 In 1961 Kleinrock showed that packet switching was a more efficient switching method. Distinctive purpose interconnection preparations between networks were another possibility, along with packet switching. While there were other limited ways to interconnect different networks, they required that one be used as a component of the other. As an open-architecture network, individual networks could be designed separately and developed so each can have its own distinctive interface which it may offer to users and other Internet providers. Each network can be designed in accordance with the specific environment and user requirements of that network. There are typically no constraints on the type of network that can be included. Open architecture networking was introduced by Kahn in 1972, after his arrival at DARPA. This work was originally part of the packet radio program, but then became a separate program in its own right.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

There are many indications within the poetry of Tony Harrison that he considers his work within the context of the canon

‘Whether one thinks of the canon as objectionable because formed at random or to serve some interests at the expense of others, or whether one supposes that the contents of canons are providentially chosen, there can be no doubt that we have not found ways of ordering our thoughts about the history of literature and art without recourse to them. ‘ (Kermode, p. 20). In what ways do you believe Tony Harrison to be affected by the canon. Use analyses of the poem to illustrate your answer. There are many indications within the poetry of Tony Harrison that he considers his work within the context of the canon. The repeated referencing of other poets1 and conscious emulation of the form of other poems (‘v. ‘ is an adaptation of Gray's ‘Elegy on a Country Churchyard' ) suggest that Harrison's work is heavily influenced by other poets, despite his seemingly original style. The way that he uses his referencing is not straightforward, however; it could be suggested that the more traditional references are ironic, as Harrison contrasts his brash modern style with the more ‘genteel' feel of the poets in the canon. The continual allusions to the opposition his poetry has faced, and his subsequent under confidence, can have said to have led to a need for the reassurance of the canon: using the models of other poets to validate the worth of his own poetry. Alternatively, Harrison may feel that the only way to express the voice he wishes to project, that of a working class northern man with authority is by using the â€Å"enemy's weapons†2, and establishing a scholastic side to his work, in order to be taken seriously by the ‘cultural elite'. It has been argued that Harrison uses other people's words and forms to justify his own work; that his feeling of social inferiority reveals itself as an insecurity in his poetry3. Whereas in Gray's ‘Elegy' the last stanza is a contemplation upon the life of the poet, filled with a sense of repose, Harrison ends his epic poem ‘v. ‘ still striving to justify his choice to become a poet. By placing it as a viable occupation alongside other more manual lifestyles, such as the production of â€Å"the beef, the beer, the bread†,4 and anticipating possible reactions: â€Å"How poems can grow from (beat you to it! ) SHIT†5, Harrison tries to protect himself from derision. Critics relate the closing stanzas of â€Å"Elegy on a Country Churchyard† to Gray's fears about his poetic destiny. Damien Grant states â€Å"The poet writes conscious of his own possible doom, to be ‘preserved beneath deep permaverse' like any other victim of evolution†6, but he is considering Harrison's ‘epitaph'. By using a recognised canonical poet such as Gray, Harrison has a model to explore his feelings about his own destiny, investigating his own experiences regarding death: â€Å"taking a short cut home through the graves here/ they reassert the glory of their team/ by spraying words on tombstones, pissed on beer†7, within a controlled and set form. The way that Harrison himself views the canon determines his reaction, and therefore his poetry. The canon could be construed as an enabling, useful force, giving Harrison ideas and structures to work with8, and Harrison himself admits to the influence of classical authors, such as Milton9. Altieri notes that â€Å"contemporary writers†¦ need to address specific canonical works and engage the same degree of emotional and intellectual energy that canonical works provide†10, and Harrison seems to have taken up this mantle, engaging it with his desire to keep poetry relevant to his experience and therefore, to him, alive. Harrison is not trying to be one of the classical authors; he is trying to respond to them in a way that is different but not necessarily inferior11. Indeed, Kermode agrees that â€Å"the best commentary on any verse is another verse, possibly placed very far away from it†. Harrison accepts that he writes from a different world perspective than many of the ‘canonical' authors, but to illustrate the similarities he uses similar forms and quotes them, either to show his awareness of their work or his reaction to it. â€Å"Mute ingloriousness†13, for instance, explores the theme of the difficulties of articulation, and is a direct quote from Gray. Harrison uses it to illustrate the difficulties he has found in developing his own poetic voice. Damien Grant draws comparisons between the symbolism in â€Å"v† and erotic images drawn by other, more traditionally ‘established' poets. The skinhead's addition of a â€Å"middle slit to one daubed v†14 is not an obscenity, it can be argued, but merely Harrison joining a long line of established authors invoking â€Å"the erotic image†¦ to serve public purposes†. 15 Another way of viewing the canon is that of â€Å"codified by a cultural elite, with power to influence the way the country thinks across a broad range of issues†. 16If the canon reflects simply a cultural emphasis, then Harrison should be considered part of that canon, as he is widely taught and studied, to a high level. If, however, the canon is set by the ‘cultural elite', then Harrison's use of some of the more standard forms and obscure classical references may be an attempt to be accepted by this elite, in order to propagate his own cultural emphasis and make his own stance widely known and acceptable. â€Å"Harrison is provoked by the persecution of an RP English teacher to fight back with the enemy's weapons, on the enemy's own ground†18; â€Å"So right, ye buggers, then! We'll occupy/ your lousy leasehold Poetry†. 19 Harrison wishes for his voice to be heard, and is not afraid of using techniques supposedly alien to his class to achieve this. Harrison takes canonical influences and makes them seemingly more accessible to a wider cross section of society, introducing more modern themes such as the problems of the Thatcher era. This is in part to make poetry more relevant and acceptable to those he seeks the approval of the most: the uneducated and the cynical, such as his parents. Catherine Packham suggests that the canon may seem oppressive and intimidating to Harrison; his feeling of insecurity may have led him to feel that all of the timeless themes that he wishes to cover have been explored extensively, by people who are better educated and suitable to be ‘poets'20. Harrison's poetry is full of the issue of self doubt and self worth: â€Å"Poetry's the speech of kings. You're one of those/ Shakespeare gives the comic bits to: prose! â€Å"21 , and seems at times to want to distance his writing from the recognisable canon to show a progression of attitudes and innovation, and perhaps attempting to demonstrate that he is not competing with the established canon. This can be seen in the fact that of the many â€Å"versus† couplings in ‘v. , a major one is that of Harrison's version versus Gray's. The very title of another poem, â€Å"On Not Being Milton†, shows that Harrison is aware of the canon and embraces his differences to it, but the poem itself, with its lyricism and innovative use of language in fact recalls the epic poetry of Milton himself; this is an irony that the poet seems to enjoy. Harrison obviously appreciates the fine crafting of established authors, and wishes to learn from them, whilst staying true to his e arthy subject matter. The touch of some of the word handling may hint at Miltonesque heights, but the subject matter of a man returning to his roots (â€Å"my growing black enough to fit my boots†22) and the outsider becoming a hero (Tidd the Cato Street Conspirator), with his â€Å"Sir, I Ham a Very Bad Hand at Righting†23 indicates that Harrison believes that education is not everything; this, in a poem littered with reference to historical figures and epic literature, hints at play. The theme of articulation is prevalent24: Harrison is concerned with the way things are said, and who they are said by, as he is aware of the impact that other works have had upon him. It would be impossible to ascertain exactly what sway the canon has had upon Harrison's poetry: nevertheless, if we are to judge his work within the context of the canon, then we must consider his literary intentions. We must ask whether his intentions are to be considered within the same school of those that he references and quotes so copiously, or if in fact these references were designed to show the vast differences between their worlds. I believe Harrison to be stuck in between the two worlds, but supremely in command. He is aware that to gain a recognition as a poet, certain rules must be followed; and he adapts these rules to suit his own purposes. Harrison incorporates enough traditional ideas and forms not his work to stay credible, but he fills his poetry with subjects and contexts unfamiliar to the ‘cultural elite'. These are the subjects and contexts that he wishes to bring into the public domain and make issues of, and by taking on the timeless element of the canonical works, Harrison ensures that he pushes poetry forward: into unfamiliar territory, and to unfamiliar readers.