Saturday, August 31, 2019

Ole Kirk Kristiansen

The founder of Lego, Ole Kirk Kristiansen, was born on April 7, 1891. Ole Kirk Kristiansen first worked on a farm and later got an apprenticeship with a carpenter that he completed in 1911. He lived in Denmark and served in the military at the Citadel of Copenhagen. At the age of 24 Ole Kirk bough the Billund Joinery Factory they manufactured doors, windows, kitchen cabinets, cupboards, coffins, chests of drawers, tools for digging peat, and bodywork for carts. He was a christian man who went about his life thankful for the things god had granted him and tried to achieve excellence within everything. When a global crisis hit Ole Kirk business was hit to. Many Danish farmers lost money and business because of US and Uk restrictions on imports. This created a problem for Ole Kirk because farmers and smallholders were his number one customers. Because no one was buying Ole Kirk had no jobs to do and was forced to make toys for Jens W. Oleson, which started his famous toy making. Ole Kirk became part of the National Association for Danish Enterprise. They promoted his manufacturing efforts during the crisis and put him in a magazine to give advice and promote his goods. Then 2 years after Ole Kirk started making toys(1932) he showed off legos in a trade fair.Lego initial started as a company name that made wooden toys. The Association for Danish Enterprise supported Ole Kirk and gave him a free spot in the trade fair. The beginning of the Lego Group was marked by Ole Kirk's manufacture of toys such as cars, planes, and yo-yos. Ole Kirk needed money to secure his business's future, so he asked his family for a 3,000 DKK loan. When Ole Kirk decided to completely make the switch to toys he held a contest to find a new name for the company the prize being a bottle of homemade wine. The winner of the contest was Ole Kirk himself with the name â€Å"Lego.† He got the name by combining the danish words â€Å"Leg Godt† which meant â€Å"play well.† Within a few years Ole Kirk laid the foundation of one of the world's leading toy manufacturers. Ole Kirk always promised quality with his work and wanted children to play with his toys for many years. He always Produced his wooden toys to his standard and made his kids do the same. Ole Kirk went as far as to make the company's motto â€Å"Only the best is good enough,† which still applies to the company today. As Ole Kirk's company grew he stuck to his roots and never got lazy with his work. With company growth also came innovations of tools and machines for Ole Kirk to use. When Ole Kirk bought his first milling machine it was a huge investment, especially because it was worth one third of company profits. Although Ole Kirk saw the massive investment as worth it for the quality and quickness it would help achieve. The mill made it possible for him to hire 15 people but, their jobs were in jeopardy when a fire burned down the factory. Ole Kirk was given a loan to rebuild which made any thought of not rebuilding go away. By the end of that year production was sailing and he was able to hire 40 people. The next big thing that happened to the company was the age of plastic. Ole Kirk invested in a plastic injection molding machine. The first plastic product that The Lego Group makes is a a plastic fish baby rattle. Although Ole Kirk's family didn't like the idea of plastic and even tried to switch him back to wood, he persisted though and started making the Legos we know today. They first started out as â€Å"Automatic Binding Blocks† until in 1951 when the name was officially changed to Lego Bricks. The change was because Godtfred Kirk wanted the Lego name to be better recognized throughout the world. Eventually Lego was sculpted into every brick made. It turned out that Ole Kirk was right and the plastic toys lead to expansion across Norway, Sweden, Germany, and other parts of Europe. The company was booming with success and continued to grow and grow. The Lego Brick is continually innovated until January 28, 1958 when the almost perfect brick was designed and patented. The Lego Group and Godtfred Kirk wanted a more dynamic toy and added new pieces like the wheel. This creates more demand for the product and furthers the growth of the company. In 1964 the first building instructions appeared and now specific things could be built. After instructions the main focus was packaging. The packaging told what could be built and drew you in to buying the product. In 1962 Dagny Holm, Godtfred Kirk's cousin joins the company and revolutionized building forever. This brought many visitors to the factory and it became overcrowded. The solution was to build the first ever Legoland. This place displayed many intricate lego models for many people to come and see. Wanting to expand the companies range of products further lead to the development of the lego figure. High demand and increasing sells lead to more time and effort being put into the figures and eventually they became what is known as Lego Minifigures. They were genderless and had no specific ethnicity. This was so that all the deciding could be in the child's imagination and creativity. Since their release over four billion Lego Minifigures have been produced. The Lego vision became one of idea, exuberance, and values. Lego want people to use their own imagination to realize anything was possible and keep their values in mind. Lego never lost its passion for its toys or their quality. The business was able to grow because they never forgot where they came from and how they got where they were. By 2005 they wanted to be the leading toy brand for families with children, this was part of the strategic platform to let employees know where the company was headed. Lego became not only a brand but something that had meaning and value attached to it through not only children but the company too. As time continued more innovations came and soon Lego was in the digital game. A man by the name Dandi brought videos of 3-D Legos which prompted investigation of the possibilities of Legos in a computer based system. Eventually this created ideas such as Lego Mindstorms and Lego computer games. The first game, Lego Island, launched in 1977 was the first addition of Legos on a computer the public had seen. Also the following year the Intelligent Lego Brick was created to be built as a model and can be programmed. The Lego group went from a furniture manufacturer to a wooden toy manufacturer to a plastic brick called the Lego manufacturer. As the company innovates its products it never lost sight of its goals and values and was able to build off of a small wood company. Today Lego creates anything from Lego sets to movies and continues to deliver with quality. Many kids today love Legos and the rest of their products as they are still one of the top toys in the world. Lego is an inspiration for many businesses because of their story and how they became one of the biggest businesses worldwide. Legos success is marked by the fact that Ole Kirk's dreams for his company were achieved and exceeded even his plans for an amazing manufacturing business.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Herd Behavior in Financial Market Essay

Definition of herding On Friday 14 September 2007, when Northern Rock in the UK opened it branches, many customers wanted to withdraw their savings and à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½1 billion, about 5% of the total bank deposits were withdrawn that day. And on Monday 17 September, a similar situation happened in front of Northern Rock branches in the UK. Even though every customer does not have the same amount of information, they all decided to behave in the same way and some were following the others on the following days without any clear plan. People thought that they were going to lose their bank deposits and that type of bank customers’ behavior caused liquidity problem and made the situation even worse. However, none of the clients who kept their deposits lost due to the fact the British Government and the Bank of England would guarantee the safety of the deposits. How can we explain that kind of behavior? Originally Herding is a term meaning animal flocking behavior. And according to the definition of Wikipedia Herding is the act of bringing individual animals together into a group (herd), maintaining the group and moving the group from place to place-or any combination of those. Apart from this bank run case, Herd behavior describes how individuals in a group can act together without planned direction. POSSIBLE EXPLICATION AND MECHANISM OF HERD BEHAVIOR Animals’ Herd Behavior According to evolutionary biologist W. D. Hamilton’s theory animals are forming a group to reduce the danger of being hunted by predictors. As a unit, they are moving together to the same direction. Animals are behaving in the same way to minimize the risk on the behalf of self-protection. Maybe this kind of behavior sounds rational if the result is always optimistic but copying your neighbor can be the worst decision sometimes. When something goes wrong and someone leads the group to the wrong direction, the whole group is going to be in danger. Human Herd Behavior However, human herd behavior is much more complicated than animals’ one and several scholars tried to explain it. Friedrich Nietzsche referred it as â€Å"herd morality† and the â€Å"herd instinct† which explain the phenomena when a lot of people are behaving in the same way at the same time. And according to Thorstein Veblen’s theory, some people imitate the other people with higher status. Human beings are continuously competing with others in order to survive or surpass others, and they try to move faster in order to take advantage of the others. As the proverbs says the early bird catches the worm, they think the faster they make the decision or do whatever they can, the better it is. However, this does not always lead to success. Those decisions are based on the sources they have and the sources are Sanctions upon deviants – dictators put their rivals in the prison (opposition is not allowed) Preference interactions – some people are wearing Burberry coats just because the majority is wearing it while others prefer to wear coats with the colors they like Direct communication – someone from your reference group or someone with credibility says that s/he likes certain products Observational influence – you observe the consequences of others’ actions Based on such sources, people make decision whether to herd or disperse, but people are herding for different reasons and their behavior is classified into several models. Herding Models Payoff Externalities Models (also called Network Externalities) – If more people are using facebook, it will attract more people to use facebook. In this case, people feel like they have to participate in the same situation so that they can have the same benefits. Information Cascade Models – When you have a flood of information coming in, it is much more difficult to make a rational decision. Nowadays there are too many sources to consider and you can barely judge if information is true or false. In this kind of situation, people are getting irrational and they tend to make decision based on the decision of the majorities, and this situation is called information cascade which occurs when people observe the actions of others and then make the same choice that the others have made, independently of their own private information signals. They are seen in groups under immediate stress from external forces, such as herd behaviour. A cascade arises naturally when people usually see what others do but not what they know. Because it is usually sensible to do what other people are doing, even this can be against what the individual believes to be true. This behavior is independent from their own private information or opinion. Concept of information cascade is based on observational and social learning. People learn from their environment. Generally, people are oriented to avoid negative consequences of their decisions or behaviors. They wish to have positive results or effects. That’s why their behavior is related to social and observational learning. People subconsciously have the idea of ‘It is more likely that I am wrong than that all those other people are wrong. Therefore, I will do as they do’. Examples of Herding Behavior Bank runs: depositors running on banks when they observe other depositors doing so. More specifically, First; investors can observe in long run when others are running on banks. Second, forcing long-term projects to liquidate early possibly leads to shortfall of funds. From the payoff externalities model’s view, people are withdrawing their deposits because they feel like they are losing their money if they keep their money on the bank account. And from informational cascade model’s view, some people may think they are not going to lose their money on their bank account but they are following the others because they think they are not wise enough and others are withdrawing their money. In real case, Argentina experienced such a run in the last two days of November 2001, with total deposits in the banking system falling by more than 2 billion (US) dollars, or nearly 3 percent, on the second day of the run alone.1 Such runs were a common occurrence in the United States in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and have also occurred in recent times in several developing countries, including Brazil in 1990 and Ecuador in 1999. Asian crisis of 97-98, herding and speculation infection The Asian crisis of 1997-98 that led to a regional economic fall in East Asia can be traced to overexpansion and under-regulation. The center of the Asian crisis was Thailand’s careless macroeconomic management that featured a fraudulent financial sector. The Asian expansion of the crisis was a due to the existing global financial integration (and similar export dependencies), current account inequities and attached exchange rates all mixed with the damaging effect of speculation and herding spreading all over the region. Resulting structural reforms and adjustments in Thailand and other damaged Asian nations came from the International Monetary Fund. A major result was a balanced exchange rate regime now prevalent in much of East Asia. Facts: During 1995 a number of experts started to wonder if the countries of Southeast Asia might be vulnerable to a macroeconomic crisis do to the poor administration of its financial procedures and to the volatility of their related economies. The main indicator was the rise of very large current account deficits among several Asian countries. Closer examination also revealed that several of the countries had developed some financial weaknesses: heavy investment in highly speculative real estate ventures, financed by borrowing from badly informed foreign sources or by credit from non regulated domestic financial institutions. It’s now known that during 1996 officials from the IMF and World Bank actually began warning the governments of Thailand, Malaysia, and other countries of the existing risks by their financial situation, and asked them to apply corrective policies. However, those governments rejected the warnings. On July 2 1997, after months of declaring that it would not happen, the government of Thailand abandoned its efforts to maintain a fixed exchange rate for its currency, the baht. The currency was quickly depreciated by more than 20 percent so within a few days most neighboring countries fell like Thailand. What forced Thailand to devalue its currency was the massive speculation against the baht, assumptions that over a few months had consumed most of what initially seemed as a large war of foreign exchange. And why were speculators betting against Thailand? Because they expected the baht to be devalued, of course. This kind of circular logic – in which investors escape a currency because they expect it to be devalued, and much of the pressure on the currency comes precisely because of this investor shortage of confidence – is the defining actor of a currency crisis and is known as Bank Run theory. In the context of a currency crisis, such behavior could mean that a wave of selling, whatever its initial cause, could be magnified through complete imitation and turn, into a rush out of the currency. Bank run in Thai currency devaluation can be viewed in two main behaviors. First; investors run when other investors are running the bank; a magnified opinion of a certain group starts to be spread in some others by just herding or imitation. Second, when banks that were investing in long-term projects were forced to liquidate early (because of the invertors running away), there was a potential lost of funds. Consequently, the last depositors to withdraw were left empty-handed (first-come, first-served limitation). BUBBLES Bubbles are sort of mass errors caused by the nature of herd. Even though there is a convincing evidence of bubbles, people are still overly convinced by their belief that market is efficient and rational. Therefore people are optimistic of their investment and they take part in the bubble. Some people may doubt the situation and find some evidence of bubbles but they still invest their capital in the market because others are doing it which is a sort of informational cascade. However, the bubble collapses and that sort of herding behavior makes the impact of the collapse much significant. The Dot-com Bubble The dot-com bubble (also referred to as the Internet bubble) was a speculative which had its climax on March 10, 2000, with the NASDAQ hitting up to 5132.52 but closing at 5048.62 in the same day. During the dot-com bubble period mostly the developed countries experienced the growth in the Internet sector and related fields. Companies such as Cisco Systems, Dell, Intel, and Microsoft were the dominant player of NASDAQ. And related to the Internet business a group of new Internet-based companies commonly referred to as dot-coms were founded. Just because of the fact that Companies had a name with an â€Å"e-† prefix to their name and a â€Å".com† the stock price was going up. Investors were overly confident of their future profits due to the advancement of technology and individual speculation while they overlooked traditional stock market value until the bubble was collapsed. Conclusion As we can see massive herding behavior turned out to be a cause of crisis at the end, and herd behavior is seen as something very negative to the market. As we have seen bank runs, bubbles, and several forms of crises. However, we cannot prevent from herding because it is a sort of instinct and it is closely related to psychological factors. Partially, individuals can make profit of their herding behavior as they are following famous investors such as Warren Buffet but the fact is that no investor can really avoid bubbles and forecast the coming crises. What we have to remember is the financial market is a complex of rational and irrational behavior and we can barely categorize them before the disaster happens. We have to be prepared of the consequence the herd behavior and be rational when the irrationality happens. Works Cited BIKHCHANDANI, S., 1998, Learning from the behavior of others: conformity, fads, and informational cascades BIKHCHANDANI, S., D. HIRSHLEIFER and I. WELCH, 2001. Informational Cascades and Rational Herding: An Annotated Devenow, Andrea and Ivo Welch, 1996, Rational Herding in Financial Economics, European Economic Review 40, 603-615 Ennis, Huberto M. and Todd Keister, 2009, Bank Runs and Institutions: The Perils of Intervention. Hirshleifer, David and Teoh, Siew Hong, 2011, Herd Behavior and Cascading in Capital Markets: A Review and Synthesis, MPRA Paper No. 5186

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Why does globalisation generate winners and losers Essay

Why does globalisation generate winners and losers - Essay Example Against this background, this essay seeks to critically analyse the extent to which globalisation can be said to be causing more harm than good to the other countries. The essay starts by defining the concept and goes on to analyse the factors that make globalisation unfavorable to the other countries. Basically, globalisation can be defined as the economic activity taking place across the national boundaries (Buckman 2004). Globalisation is a result of internationalisation of financial markets which aims to promote free trade as well as direct investment among member states across the world.  The advent of globalisation has resulted in the liberalisation of trade where the geographical barriers that used to block this kind of trade have been removed. This has resulted in people from different geographical regions becoming more connected. There are key players that drive globalisation and these include the multinational corporations, World Trade Organisation (WTO), World Bank and t he International Monetary Fund (IMF) (Rodrick 2001). Governments in different countries also play a pivotal role with regards to the concept of globalisation as they are the overall authority which would be responsible for regulation of the operations of the multinational companies. The WTO also plays a pivotal role in that it facilitates the platform through which international trade agreements are negotiated and enforced among member states. On the other hand, the World Bank and the IMF are major actors in that they provide with the needed financial assistance in the form of loans as well as technical assistance to the governments or multinational corporations that wish to invest in other different countries. However, whilst the concept of globalisation is noble in that it liberalised trade among nations, it can be noted that it is not the case the rich and powerful nations are in most cases on top of the situation where they are the ones who are seen carrying investment to lesser developed countries. This emanates from the view that the large financial institutions that should sponsor the activities of globalisation such as World Bank and IMF are controlled by the powerful and developed western nations. These developed nations have all the financial assistance they need at their disposal and they are the ones seen investing in poor and less developed countries whereas the less developed countries are not able to invest in developed countries. Thus, the flow of the wealth is often seen as one sided and there is no equality in terms of sharing of the wealth (Bond 2002). The wealth is seen flowing from poor countries back to the developed countries hence these nations will be winners while the poor countries will be losers. The developed countries aim at extracting wealth especially in rich mineral resources areas while the local people of the host country will have little to show for the investment carried out at their door step by the foreigners. The investo rs often get a huge chunk of the revenue generated from the investment carried in other countries. The local people are losers in this case as they suffer the fate of being used as cheap labour whereby they will be given very little pay that does not correspond with the amount of work they will be doing. Globalisation has often been criticized for the unfair redistribution of wealth that has been obtained in poor countries. The less developed countries in most cases do not have equal powers compared to their counterparts from the developed nations. For example, many African countries are very rich in terms of the natural resources they possess but unfortunately, most of these countries are very poor and are dependent on aid from the rich nations. Instead of

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

The 20th Century Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

The 20th Century - Essay Example To a great extent, the many challenges confronted by these nations were the result of doctrines and rivalries which originated in the West. The non-Western world of the twentieth century was largely shaped by the aftermath of Imperialism and by the influence of the Cold War. Imperialism was the dominant foreign policy of the European nations from the nineteenth century. Through this policy of expansion, the imperialists aimed â€Å"to get whatever was possible from the countries they controlled; whether raw materials, natural resources, or the sweat and blood of laboring native populations† (Lecture 3, 1). While economic exploitation was the chief objective of Imperialism, expansion of overseas territories also provided military and naval bases and established control over strategic locations and communication lines. Westerners justified Imperial domination through the belief that it was the â€Å"white man’s burden† to â€Å"bring the benefits of civilization t o his dark-skinned brothers† (Lecture 3, 2). Again, Social Darwinism proposed that â€Å"select human groups would and should flourish and rule over those that were less fit and less capable or developed† (Lecture 3, 3). The leading colonial power was Great Britain, whose â€Å"possession grew to cover an area 40 times greater than the homeland† (Lecture 4). ... h Africa was governed through segregationist legislation based on racial discrimination: the policy of ‘apartheid.’ Apartheid may be considered a direct reflection of Imperialism’s rationale of racial superiority and exploitation. It was the greatest challenge confronted by South Africa in the second half of the twentieth century. Bishop Desmond Tutu’s statement to the United Nations Security Council in October 1984 (Document # 5) is a scathing indictment of apartheid. Tutu condemns apartheid as â€Å"a vicious, immoral and totally evil, and unchristian system† (Page 8). The Group Areas Act, the Population Registration Act, and separate educational systems and townships for the different race groups, ensured that the coloreds, who constituted over â€Å"73 percent of the population, the Overwhelming majority in the land† (Page 7), were denied the franchise, land rights and equal opportunities. South Africa witnessed a prolonged, often violent struggle against apartheid. Finally, the release of Nelson Mandela in 1994 ushered in a new era of racial equality and reconciliation in South Africa. Imperialism, exacerbated by the post-war redrawing of national boundaries, was also the root cause of the Arab-Israeli conflict which was the major challenge confronted by the Middle East in the twentieth century. â€Å"More than any other region in the world it became an arena for political and military conflict and great power rivalry† (Lecture 20). The Ottoman Empire collapsed after World War I and the fragmented territory was divided between Great Britain and France by the United Nations as the Palestine Mandate. The British sowed the seeds of the Arab-Israeli conflict by making unfulfilled, contradictory promises to the Jews and the Arabs in order to advance their World

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

My Contribution to the MBA Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

My Contribution to the MBA - Coursework Example I also find the faculties to be very qualified and an authority in their respective areas of expertise. Its state of the art facilites are top-notch and second to none compared to any university in the world with a tuition fee that is reasonably priced. Combining all these factors that the MMUBS has to offer, I believe that the university gives its students a competitive edge. After graduating the course at MMU Business School, I am very confident that my preparation at the university will imbue and furtherly enhance my professional skill sets in business to be competitive in a very tough job market. As a student, it is incumbent upon me to follow and abide with all the rules and regulations of the school. To be courteous and respectful to all the staff and faculites of MMUBS and to fulfill all the academic requirements of the course; to be cooperative in any activity that the university may undertake as it prepares me to become more professionally competetitive in the future. I beli eve that this should be the first contribution that any student should give to the university when they get admitted. MBA is a course that should prepare us in the competetive world of business. During the course of its study, it is important that we should have a well-founded theoretical framework to base business decisions as we exercise corporate leadership in the future. While this highlights the importance of the Professors as they impart to us the conceptual foundations of business, leadership and decision making in business to make us better leaders and managers, there is another important component in the advance course of business and corporate administration that requires the professional participation of its students. For the theoretical and conceptual foundation should be perfected with experience and empirical exposure to other aspect and fields of business to better enhance our professional skill-sets that would make us better leaders and managers. In this area, I can contribute my extensive knowledge and expertise in Advance Logistics and Supply Chain. This will enable other students to have a better grasp understanding in my field of expertise which hopefully, could contribute to their professional growth. Of course, I too would expect other students to share their professional expertise which could also widen my horizon and understanding of the business and corporate landscape. This exercise will add to the already rich professional diversity in the MBA Programme benefitting each and every student. Second, of which I believe I could tremendously contribute, is to share to other students the unique perspective and cultural context of doing a business in the Middle East. That they may have a better grasp and understanding of the nuances and idiosyncrynacies of the culture when they chance to do business in that specific region in the future or deal with somebody who has a cultural context of that region. I believe that this understanding is impe rative as businesses now operate in a global economy making it inevitable and necessary for each business to deal and transact across countries and cultures. This too, will add to the already rich cultural diversity of the university with each student sharing the uniqueness of his/her own culture. As a student, there was also a time when I was new and unfamiliar with Manchester. Although I find the place to be

Monday, August 26, 2019

Should Advertising to Children be Restricted in Any Way Assignment

Should Advertising to Children be Restricted in Any Way - Assignment Example Young children, having a limited capacity to reason, often do not know the best for themselves for which they rely on parents for protection and guidance. More and more advertisements try to attract children to unhealthy habits that give rise to childhood obesity, malnourishment, and sedentary lifestyles. Further, advertising to children also has psychological implications. Psychologists studying the minds of children point out a visible change in the thinking of children as a result of consuming huge amounts of televisions ads. Advertising has caused children to be more materialistic thereby replacing their intrinsic interest towards things they actually like. Hence, the downsides of advertising targeted towards children are visible in children’s unhealthy habits and changes in their attitudes. Given the scope of the issue, efforts can be made on a community level in order to advocate against advertising targeted towards children. In this regard, a coalition with the community and organizations with similar interests can be formed to add more substance to our voice against advertising to children. An alliance can be formed with ‘Action for Healthy Kids’ which is a collective focused towards healthy eating and other health issues faced by children, many of which including obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and undernourishment, are products of unhealthy habits promoted by advertising. ‘Action for Healthy Kids’ operates in every state of the United States including New Jersey which will help find local support for the cause and that which is able to translate into a larger impact. Additionally, a coalition with the New Jersey government’s Division for Consumer Affairs could be built because the division has been involved with similar efforts that s eek to protect consumers related to healthcare issues.

Sunday, August 25, 2019


POLITICAL ECONOMY OF THE SINGLE EUROPEAN MARKET - Essay Example 195 billion budget was prepared by the European Union for the purpose of Structural Funds from the period of January 01, 2000 to December 21, 2006. This allocation of the budget was used in different sectors, especially the transport sector, and poorer regions of the continent were supported and integrated with different developing schemes of these structural funds. On the other hand, the budget for the Cohesion Fund was allocated to the amount of 18 billion, which was also used for different schemes and allocations in the European Union. (Halkier, 2004) In this regard, the major amount of the European Union's funding is spent on the Structural Funds, and the bulk of European Union's funding is made up these structural and cohesion funds. In addition, the Common Agricultural Policy is also included in the bulk of European Union's funding along with the abovementioned funds. (Artis, 2006) The areas and regions of the European continent, which are under the pressure of various difficulties are helped and supported by the European Union's Structural Funds. The decline of the local European industry could be the reason of these difficulties. Else, reduction of farm incomes due to the reduction in commodity prices could also be responsible for the lacking of resources to these regions. (Evans, 1999) In the result, sponsor projects are helped and supported by these structural funds, by which, locally identified needs would be addressed directly by it. Some of the sponsor projects that are fun by the structural funds are credited to train local people with different skills, which may help them in building their careers, or help them in setting-up their new businesses. Mainly, there are two objectives of the European Union's Structural Funds. Firstly, the regions with lack of development are enhanced and advanced by the adjustment of structural funds, which help in promoting development in these areas. Mostly, the lagging-behind areas are supported in the first objective of the European Union's Structural Funds. Secondly, local areas that are found to be facing structural difficulties are converted socially and economically by the support of these structural funds. The social and economic conversion is done in such a way that areas are provided with different developing opportunities, which help them in developing and advancing themselves and their areas. (Evans, 1999) Another objective was regarded in the structural funds of the European Union. In this regard, education, employment, as well as, the training systems and policies of the European regions are adapted and modernized by the support and coordination of the structural funds and their different planning and implementation of different projects in these areas. In all these three objectives, the transport sector has been specifically given a significant importance in the funding of these structural funds by the European Union. However, outside the specific areas of the first objective of the structural funds, the fisheries sector is also being restructured by the implementation of a special scheme. In addition, the European Union is witnessing the implementatio

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Contrasting programs and policies related to poverty Research Paper

Contrasting programs and policies related to poverty - Research Paper Example On the other hand, it can be apparently observed that America is still undergoing through a tough phase in tackling its poverty level, which fluctuates on a constant basis (The World Bank Group, 2014). With this concern, the research paper would describe the programs along with the policies associated with poverty that adopt and implement by the countries i.e. the US and China. Moreover, a comparison would also be taken into concern regarding the same in the discussion of the research paper. Prior to contrasting the programs along with the policies associated with poverty between China and the US, a detailed description of these programs as well as policies of both the nations has been provided hereunder. Since the year 1980, the Chinese government has shown significant improvement in declining the poverty rates. The projected poverty rate in China in the year 1980 was estimated 84%, which came down to 13% by the year 2012. The reason contributed in making this terrific improvement is the rise particularly in GDP rates. This can be justified as that the GDP rate rose from 1.89% in the year 1980 to 11.57% in the year 2012, which further resulted towards increase in per capita income by nearly about 30 folds from $205 to $6064 in recent times (The Economic Times, 2013). However, despite the significant success in uplifting the critical concern of poverty, China in the current scenario, is still facing certain issues relating to poverty. In this regard, the increase in the inequality levels and the concentration of the left over poverty populaces in the rural areas are becoming critical concern for the Chinese government (The World Bank Group, 2014). As a corrective measure, China along with ‘The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)’ has concentrated their efforts on two vital aspects. One of these is the pilot projects that will be brought under superior technical

Friday, August 23, 2019

Literature Search Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Literature Search - Assignment Example Totman J; You only have one chance to get it right’: A quantitative study of relatives’ experiences of caring at home for a family member with terminal cancer; Palliative Medicine – 2015,; SAGE Publications Ltd, Oliver’s Yard, 55 City Road, London EC1Y 1SP, United Kingdom. This is a framework approach quantitative study utilizing semi-structured interview, exploring the emotional challenges home caregivers faces in the provision of palliative care. It examines the challenges the relatives undergoes as they manage the pain of the terminally ill patients in London city. The study analyzes care slips systematically with emphasis on the pain scale rating of the patients change throughout the home care period. Either the research approaches the study from the patient perspective rather than the care provider perspective. Based on the research done in Ontario provides insight to pain management as an ethical obligation for palliative care providers. The focus of the study is the patients with HIV and AIDS. It incorporates 126 patients and strictly focuses the care from the patient view of the quality of life at the end of care issues. It also explores to the receiving adequate pain management as a measure to prolongation of life. The researcher utilizes the knowledge that old people form the largest pool of people receiving palliative care then looks at the dosages of various drugs that comfortable relieves pain among the older people. He uses quantitative research to evaluate the prescription criteria of the medicines that patients receive attributed in the palliative care. In this, the researcher concentrates on both experimental and non-experimental research to assess the usage of morphine as a main drug in geriatric pain control. Focusing the research on the people from three geriatric homes, he explores the risk of over dosage and under

State of the union review Movie Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

State of the union - Movie Review Example However, Obama hinted that a small number of American troops will be left in Afghanistan after 2014 to train afghan forces and to pursue any remnant of al Qaeda that may be remaining; the chance of this happening is solely dependent on the ability of the Obama administration to strike an agreement with Hamid Karza regime. President Obama also commented on the use of drones for military purposes where he said that they will only be used in foreign countries when need be and in such a way that the people of those countries will be comfortable with the actions. He went further ahead to comment on the Guantanamo bay prison which he wants closed and the prisoners transferred to other places. This comes after the new review boards held their second hearing on the closure of the facility and the transfer of more than 150 remaining prisoners. In his state of the union speech, president Obama also touched on the relationship of United States of America and Iran where he said that he would veto any new sanctions on Iran that the congress may bring before him since it may derail the talks on the country to abandon enrichment of uranium for making atomic bombs. Obama seemed to lean more on giving diplomacy a chance to end the crisis than using a more combative approach. He said this while dismissing his critics on the ability of his government to negotiate with Iran by comparing the situation with that of john F Kennedy and Soviet Union, which was more delicate. Obama praises the role that American diplomacy has played in ensuring global peace by rallying more than 50 countries to help prevent nuclear weapons from being used by terrorists while at the same time helping America reduce its reliance on such weapons that it had piled during the cold war (Friedman, 02). Obama went ahead to argue that it is because of American dip lomacy and the threat of using force

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Blackadder Goodbyeee Essay Example for Free

Blackadder Goodbyeee Essay Blackadder is a four series BBC1 sitcom that was created in 1983 by Richard Curties and Ben Elton. It attempt to explain Bristish history in a period from 1485 to 1917 in a comedic way. Blackadder Goes Forth has an lampoon approach to the World War I which was an dread event. This lampoon approaching is particularly success in the last episode, Goodbyee, which tells the story of five main character, Captain Edmund Blackadder (Rowan Atkinson), Private S. Baldrick (Tony Robinson), Genereal Sir Anthony Hogmanay Melchett (Stephen Fry), Lieutenant The Honourable George Colthurst St. Barleigh ( Hugh Laurie) and Captain Kevin Darling (Tim McInnerny). Each of them had their own reaction and feeling in respond to the last push. The fear, the anxiety, and desire not to be dead were described in a comedy way. It is said that when the situation is far worse to cry, laugh to it. It means there is no word can describe the horror of that situation. The episode Goodbyee chose that approach to tell the real story of soldiers, hero and casualty, in World War I. Eventhough the laugh, silly questions, cunning plan, and funny event happen throughout the movie, there is nothing real fun. All the reaction is their respond out of depression as the last attempt to avoid the dead. Blending comedy with tragedy, Goodbyeee definitely makes the audience feel the horror of the war, the meaningless and the cost of it. World War I or Great War was a major war took place in Europe from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918 between two opposite alliances: the Allies (United Kingdom, France and Russia) and the Central Power (Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italia). Triggered by the assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, the heir of the throne, the war began. The Austro-Hungarian invaded Serbia, the German invaded Belgium, Luxembourg and France, and the Russian attacked Germany. The Western Front settled into a static battle with a trench line that changed little until 1917. After United Sates entered the trench and the Allies drove back the German armies in a series of successful offensive, Germany agreed to a cease fire on 11 November 1918, marked the end of the Great War. This four years war cost about 70 million military personnel mobilized and more than 9 million combatants killed. â€Å"World War I†, Wikipedia) Goodbyeee tell the true story about the soldier in the Western Front. All of their reaction, feeling and ideas about the war are shown in their last minutes before the big push. Eventhough they were professional soldiers, they were still afraid of a battle. Captain Blackadder (Atkinson) pretended to go mad by putting an underwear on his head and putting stick up his nose, in order to be sent back but it did not work out. General Melchett (Fry) gave Captain Darling (McInnerny) the frontline commission honor- the honor of being dead. Afraid of being dead,Captain Darling kneeled and pleaded General Melchett (Fry) to change his mind but unsuccessful. Eventhough the fear of Captain Darling was so obvious; General Melchett intentionally misinterpreted the pleading. Regardless the leader’ responsibility and role-mole, all of them were trying to find a way to escape the dead. They did not feel ashamed when pretending to be mad in the cunning plan in front of their soldier or shoving the honor of dead in the front line to other people. They did not feel humiliated when pleading and kneeling. They even pretended to misunderstand the obviously begging. They ran away from their responsibility. That never have been expected to do as a soldier who could die for their country. The laugh added, the calm voice and the funny faces of actors make the viewer the humor of the situation. However, beneath the humor is the raw fear that can not be easily uncovered. The raw fear was not easily uncovered, but the lost would be. All of George’s friends were dead, simply and normally. However, looking at the way their dead were described â€Å"Sticky had been out for a duck†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Goodbyee, DVD), there were anything but normal. The news of their dead was not told directly to avoid the feeling of lost. This mean the lost were so horrible that it needed to be avoided. Obviously, as George said, â€Å"I suppose I’m the only one of the Trinity Tiddlers still alive. † (â€Å"Goodbyeee†, DVD), the number of lost were so high. This scene of the movie has another interesting but sorrowful approach: the lost counted by the number of soldiers who were still alive rather than who had been dead. The fear was so visible and the lost were horrible. That leads the question of Private Baldrick (Robinson),â€Å"How did the war start? (â€Å"Goodbyee†, DVD). Even the soldiers who were responsible for protecting the country did understand the reason of the war. Even the Captain could not give the fully and correctly answer. The scrambling of words in question and explanation were attempted to avoid the real truth behind it. There were no clear reasons for the war. There were blind soldiers who would die without knowing why. That is the real horror of the war that the movie makes: people may felt fear, tried to avoid the dead, lost the pride as a soldier without understanding why. Good bye is the obviously comedy. However, beneath all the humor is the sorrowful truth about the war: fear, death and the meaningless of the war. Fear was hidden under mindless activities for exclusion from war. Death and the meaningless of the war were avoided by scrambling words. Laughing at the humor in the movies to hide the tears bursting out when the final truth had been recovered in the last minutes before the big push â€Å" I’m scared, sir. † , said Goerge, â€Å"I’m scared too, sir†, said Baldrick. (â€Å"Goodbyeee†, DVD).

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Hindustan unilever limited

Hindustan unilever limited Hindustan Unilever Limited Hindustan Unilever Limited (HUL) is Indias largest fast moving consumer goods company, with leadership in Home Personal Care Products and Foods Beverages. HULs brands, spread across 20 distinct consumer categories, touch the lives of two out of three Indians. Hindustan unilever limited is one of Indias (FMCG) fast moving consumer goods company and have brands like Lifebuoy, Lux , Surf Excel, Rin, Wheel, Fair Lovely, Ponds, Sunsilk, Clinic, Pepsodent, Close-up, Lakme, Brooke Bond, Kissan, Knorr , Kwality Walls are household names across the country and other products such as soaps, detergents, personal products, tea, coffee etc The mission that inspires HULs over 15,000 employees is to add vitality to life. With 35 Power Brands, HUL meets every day needs for nutrition, hygiene, and personal care with brands that help people feel good, look good and get more out of life. It is a mission HUL shares with its parent company, Unilever, which holds 52.10% of the equity. A Fortune 500 transnational, Unilever sells Foods and Home and Personal Care brands in about 100 countries worldwide. MISSION Unilevers mission is to add Vitality to life. We meet everyday needs for nutrition, hygiene, and personal care with brands that help people feel good, look good and get more out of life. CORPORATE MISSION Unilevers mission is to add Vitality to life. We meet everyday needs for nutrition; hygiene and personal care with brands that help people feel good, look good and get more out of life. Our deep roots in local cultures and markets around the world give us our strong relationship with consumers and are the foundation for our future growth. We will bring our wealth of knowledge and international expertise to the service of local consumers a truly multi-local multinational. Our long-term success requires a total commitment to exceptional standards of performance and productivity, to working together effectively, and to a willingness to embrace new ideas and learn continuously. To succeed also requires, we believe, the highest standards of corporate behaviour towards everyone we work with, the communities we touch, and the environment on which we have an impact. This is our road to sustainable, profitable growth, creating long-term value for our shareholders, our people, and our business partners. MARKETING OBJECTIVE The marketing objective is to establish the company as an expert in the marketplace .Lux has to establish an expert in the marketplace. Lux has to establish itself as a leader in the market. To accomplish this objective, customers must faith on its products. Objective metric :-To extend the business. To accomplish this marketing objective .Lux must have to tie-ups some other branded (Foreign) company and produce very good quality products. People know about at least more countries and use it. SWOT ANALYSIS Strengths Company has advanced technology and well skilled professionals. The new Lux face wash is a high quality product in term of skin problems and protection. The target market is educated, professionals and belongs to premium and middle class Company totally owned, systematic distribution network, transparent communication system. Weakness Competitors have strong promotional activities. Imported brands also available in the markets. Customers are offered better alternatives by the competition. Opportunities Population expands at a rapid rate. Consumers are becoming more quality conscious. Rural areas are a large prospective market where they can introduce lux face wash. Customer base is increasing with effective marketing. Threats Political and Economical factors. Partial Government policies. High rate of competition. Local and foreign competitors INTRODUCTION TO LUX Lux Soap came into existence in 1964. Lux occupies a large market share in the Pakistani soap market as well as the international arena. The new Lux, with the sunscreen formula, is targeted to a different market segment as compared previously to previous Lux. Lux is the first brand to bring the sunscreen concept in soap industry. Lux plans to cater to all these customers. Beauty begins with Lux. The strategy that is used by lever brother for their lux sunscreen is on specific product Benefits strategy as the lux sunscreen promotes Sun Protection benefit as well as beauty .Lux sunscreen revolves around the slogan that is:Lux Sunscreen. Lux Soap came into existence in 1964. Subsequently it was launched in the US in 1916, and marketed as laundry soap targeted specifically at delicates. Lever Brothers encouraged women to home launder their clothes without fear of satins and silks being turned yellow by harsh lyes that were often used in soaps at the time. The flake-type soap allowed the manufacturer some leeway from lye because it did not need to be shaped into traditional cake-shaped loaves as other soaps were. The result was a gentler soap that dissolved more readily and was advertised as suitable for home laundry use. Lux is currently a product of Unilever. The name Lux was chosen as the Latin word for light. Lux toilet soap was introduced as bathroom soap in the US in 1925 and in the UK in 1928 as a brand extension of Lux soap flakes. Subsequently Lux soap has been marketed in several forms, including hand wash, shower gel and cream bath soap. Lux soap was launched in India in 1929. The very first advertisement in 1929 featured Leela Chitnis as its brand ambassador. It was branded in India as the beauty soap of film stars. Delight to the senses: Everything about the brand from the look and feel of the products and packaging to the subtle fragrances is a delight to the senses. In fact, Lux has been making waves since 1924, when it launched the worlds first mass-market beauty soap at a fraction of the cost of some expensive brands. How it all started Lux was first introduced as toilet soap in 1925. Produced by Lever Brothers, it arrived in the UK in 1928, offering people a chance to pamper themselves for a modest price. From the 1930s right through to the 1970s, Lux soap colours and packaging were altered several times to reflect fashion trends. In 1958 five colours made up the range: pink, white, blue, green and yellow. People enjoyed matching their soap with their bathroom colours. In the early 1990s, Lux responded to the growing trend away from traditional soap bars by launching its own range of shower gels, liquid soaps and moisturising bars. Lux beauty facial wash, Lux beauty bath and Lux beauty shower were launched in 1992. In 2004, the entire Lux range was relaunched in the UK to include five shower gels, three bath products and two new soap bars. 2005 saw the launch of three exciting new variants with dreamy names such as Wine Roses bath cream, Glowing Touch and Sparkling Morning shower gels. PRODUCTS OF LUX Top of Form Lux Bath Glowing Touch Lux Bath Shimmering Sea Refreshing Foam Bath Lux Bath Wine Roses Lux Heavenly Milk Indulging Cream Bath Lux Light Reflect Body Moisturiser Lux Liquid Hand Wash Heavenly Milk Lux Liquid Hand Wash Shimmering Sea Lux Nutri Pearls Body Moisturiser Lux Oils of the Orient Pampering Cream Bath Lux Shower Cream Heavenly Milk Lux Shower Cream Oils of the Orient Lux Shower Gel Nutri Pearls Lux Shower Gel Shimmering Sea Lux Shower Gel Summer Massage Lux Shower Gel Wine Roses Lux Shower Glowing Touch Lux Shower Sparkling Morning Lux Soap Bar Silky Touch Lux Soap Creamy Perfection Lux Soap Marine Massage Bottom of Form LAUNCHING OF LUX FACE WASH We are proud to propose a new range of deodorant protection brings you incredible natural effectiveness that is kind to both you and environment. This year launch of the new variant lux faces wash, with the baseline FEEL FRESH to communicate its positioning. It addresses towards the need for removing unnecessary dirt and feels your skin soft and fresh through the unique proposition of FACE WASH. Today in the market, lux has three distinct variants, Lux deo, beauty soap, creams continues to operate in the healthy skin category. Lux soaps are the strongest player in freshness category. This is a natural extract recommended by a professional dermatologist in Arizona, U.S.A. It was already approved for safety and hygene.Lux Face Wash is the latest offer from the HUL. This latest Face wash is based at make your skin free from dirt and feels fresh and soft skin. It comes for oily skin. Product profile Lux Face Wash the first step in facial care for soft, smooth skin. For clean and soft skin that glows suitable for all skin-types. How it works: Thoroughly cleanses without leaving slippery feeling on skin. Cleans skin 100% soap free formula with rich lather penetrates and removes deep rooted dirt, leaving your skin cleaner and smoother. Gentle on skin. Active Cleansing System cleans gently and cares for your skin better than soap. Results: Clean, soft, glowing skin. Usage: Splash faces with water and apply face wash on face and neck. Rinse off. Pat dry. If face-wash gets into your eyes, rinse well with water. Soap free washing preparation with organic surface active agents. Key Ingredients: Glycerin, Sodium Lareth Sulphate, Tocopheryl Acetate (Vitamin E Acetate). PRICING Unilever claims to practice value based pricing in which the customer perception of the products price provides a starting point for developing the marketing mix of the product. The research department determines this price usually by using focus groups. The primary importance of this value based pricing is that the product demand will be much higher if its price is in line with the customers perception of its value. One crucial concern for value based pricing is strict management of cost in order to be able to make a profit at the value based price. After the initial price is determined Unilever then uses target costing in order to achieve the required profits. With the marketing plan now being termed as Annual contact the importance of meeting the profit margin requirements has increased. Target costing thus provides as essential tool to manage cost effectively. The characteristics of monopolistic competition typifying the market set the threshold for pricing. This market over a range of prices. The key element is differentiation which allows the sellers to gain market share in contrasts to competitors. Last year lakme, Himalaya, Ponds revised their prices which has increased the prices of their face wash considerably but lux has maintained its price and their prices are much lower than Ponds, lakme. Being a poor country people go for products which are within the range of Rs 50. Promotion LUX has been closely identified by its innovation, which is reflected in its promotions. It was the first brand of this category that comes up with an idea of creative offers like gold coins and pendants in soap. After getting a good response from these offers they started new offers to increase the sales like, Buy1 Get 1 Free. LUX advertising always had a strong impact on customers by carefully choosing the elements which reflect aspects of the brand. No wonder then, the commercials featuring of celebrities like, Hema Malani, Aishwarya Rai and kareena Kapoor makes the Lux very famous among womens and this creates an curiosity in the mind of girls for using the product. The confidence that advertisement shows were closely connected to the properties of the Lux product. The lux face washes targets audiences in the markets of India that has appealed for only girls. The current advertising reinforces this bond and the fact that lux has provided protection over the years. STEPS IN LAUNCHING OF FACE WASH HUL want to launch a new product of lux into market. This time company is launching lux face wash with different fragrances for girls facing problem of oily skin They had done homework and decided exactly what to offer and how to generate sales. It is very difficult to increase sales because these days large number of products were launched everyday and there is very tough competition in market. So for this there is a proper procedure to launch product in the market and defined a proper procedure of launching a new product in the market. Lux face wash is the brand extension of the lux range and it will provide benefit in the success of the product. These are the following steps kept in mind. 1. Identifying the competitors: Before launching the product a proper market study must be done to know the competitors in the market and their strategies. There are various competitors of HUL in market offering large range of products like lakme, ponds, Himalaya etc. So for this there is a need of market survey and have to take a serious look at competitors by doing the proper SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis. By doing swot analysis strategies and target market of competitors will come to know and helps in making the policies to compete with them. As HUL is launching face wash under the brand name LUX it is important to know the products offered in the market by competitors. There are various products like ponds, lakme etc offered by competitors but if new product or service is entirely unique and without any competition, its important to put product according to the customers prospective .Once it is decided whom will be competitors, review their mar keting strategy, including their ads, brochures and websites and target market after all the process it is to be evaluated how new product will stand up against other products. 2. Target the customer. To successfully launch a new product with minimum financial outlay, its essential to focus exclusively on those customers who are targeted according to the different segments. These customers may be those peoples currently buying something else and can appreciate the additional features of new product offered to them. So for targeting the market there must be a proper segmentation according to age, sex, preferences etc. There will be a proper positioning of product in the mind of the customers. The main target customer of the lux face wash is girls. 3. Define marketing strategy and techniques. After defining the target customer, sales and marketing channels also must be decided. It must be decided whether to do distribute through internet or dealers .Generally, multichannel marketing achieve the greatest success .It is necessary to know target customer and target market. Suppose your strategy is to market a low-cost customer you might choose traditional direct marketing sales as your primary channel. The trend from traditional strategies based on personalization, rather than generalization approaches integrated. If you want to target high cost customer you might use traditional as well as modern techniques to distribute the products. HUL involve the whole organization, because it needs both internal and external communications to identify the strategy and direction of the organization. 4. Test concept and marketing approach. With all the efforts and money it takes to bring a new product to market, it is foolishness to rush to the launch phase before testing your product. Its best to examine product, marketing message and marketing materials offered by the company. Before launching the product it is to be tested whether the product will be accepted by the customer or not. Only after testing is complete, company should proceed to the final creation of marketing approach and strategy. 5. Positioning:-Positioning is the art of designing the companys offer and image to occupy a place in the mind of the target customers. The goal is to locate the brand in the mind of consumers to maximize the benefits of the firm. Positioning starts with a product. Therefore it is important to develop approach in order to obtain a brand image, target the market and to position the LUX deo to their respective target markets. The present report focuses on the explanation of the promotional, marketing mix and business strategy. 6. Roll out campaign. Campaign often plays a vital role in the launch of a product. There are various ways of campaign like through advertisement, events, public relations etc .But no matter what publicity route you choose, first make sure your product is ready and available for purchase in order to maximize returns. And other marketing efforts should follow closely on the press roll out. Monitor the results of all media, and in the first weeks and months, be prepared to adjust campaign to take advantage of what is working best. Company must hold various promotional events, advertisements for the promotion of the product. As HLL is launching the deo there must awareness and availability of the product in market which is only possible by promotional campaign. All the Medias like newspapers, TV, radios; internet etc must be used for the promotion of the product. 7. Launch of the product: After a proper campaign process it is to be decided about the launch of the product keeping in mind the various concepts of marketing mix. A proper process must be followed keeping in mind the 4ps price, place, product, promotion .when all is set launch product by handling an inaugural ceremony. 8. Taking the feedback from customer:- work doesnt ends after launch of the product now its time to take feedback from customer about the product. Feedback will tell whether the product is successful or not. Company will also come to know about the need of customer and can review the product. Feedback is necessary because by this it can be specified that what consumers want and what they are getting. It will also help in the launching of new product. 9. Know your products lifecycle. The campaign which is used during the introduction phase of product launch will need to be updated as product matures. It is needed to monitor the marketing results carefully and record the results that will indicate when its time to revise the product, media message for generating the higher revenue. This is needed because every product reaches the maturity stage where revenue generations decrease and its time to review the product. MARKET GROWTH OF FACE WASH This graph shows the market growth of the product after the one month of launch up to the fifth month. According to this market survey products market share increases rapidly but due to tough competition in the market it starts declining at the ending of second month. Graphic representation of product growth But after the end of the third month sales increases due to the quick response of the company.HUL increases the sales promotion of deodorant creates awareness in the market. Due to this there is increase in the sales and remain constant up to fifth month. This shows that after launching the product job doesnt ends product but it needs regular promotion in case of new product. After examining the market cause of decline in the growth of product indicates that it is caused by due to the decrease in the price of the other companys product. So here HUL reduces its products prices and records increase in the growth rate and maintained it. Market survey is must in todays competitive world because market trends keep on changing regularly so thats why its necessary. Evaluation and control Evaluation is main part how we done all the things market research , knowledge about competitors strategy target market product promotion evaluation and good control over all these activities are very essential. Responsible Management Responsibility management solves most of important problem faced by system administrator. Employees should have proper responsibility about management. Place Distribution: Place and distribution channels play an important role of product. IMPLEMENTATION OF TIME TABLE 1. The company plans to more market shares at the end of 2010. 2. The company plans to have secured selling in each region of the country even abroad i.e. global market. SUMMARY HUL has to sale its new product LUX face wash throughout the country and also target the new entry. For this HUL has to set quarterly and yearly sales target and actual sales will be compared to these quarterly plans One major concern is that the current financial strategy of supporting. We have to new business by personal funds. Finally we have to utilize all marketing plans.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Selective Oestrogen Receptor Molecules (SERM)

Selective Oestrogen Receptor Molecules (SERM) Lucy Perry Perry Pharma Development Pipeline Introduction: Perry Pharma Research Development (PP-RD) has been investigating Selective Oestrogen Receptor Molecules (SERM) for potential development that will be effective in both breast and uterine cancer as part of its drug pipeline. Early clinical testing of PKWT and PKWX, for which PP holds Australian patents (66633 –PKWT and 44455 – PKWX) for, indicates significant improvement in their selectivity, clinical outcomes and safety profiles when compared to the current SERMs. Thus, providing an assessment of the development considerations including efficacy, safety, therapeutic indications and potential market share would aid PP in making decisions concerning the development of these molecules. This information is now vital due to a potential infringement of patent 66633 – PKWT, by HCH who manufacture ‘Tamax’, and are about to launch the successor ‘Pro-tam’. PP-RD has analysed samples of ‘Pro-tam’, which has been identified as PKWT. Because of the impending launch, PP-Legal is including recommendations for dealing with this infringement within this review. Selective Oestrogen Receptor Modulators Cancers that grow in response to oestrogen are termed ‘ER-positive’. Oestrogen receptor positive cancers growth is modulated by oestrogen binding at the oestrogen receptor (ER). These ER are located in breast, bone, central nervous system and uterine tissues. SERMs action in the body is through agonism or antagonism at the ER, leading to both positive and negative effects depending on the tissue site. Antagonism of the ER and blocking of the action of oestrogen in a specific tissue such as the breast or uterus is responsible for anti-cancer action of a SERM (Fabian 2005, Maximov 2013). PP is interested in developing PKWT and PKWX for these ER-positive cancers. Treatment of ER-positive cancer: ER positive cancers are one of the most common forms of breast cancer subtype (ACS 2014a). SERMs are used as primary, combination or adjuvant therapy for cancers expressing the ER receptor (Yilmaz 2013, ACOG 2014, Sledge 2014). Compound choice is dependent on the patient population, and the associated treatment period may last up to 10 years (ACOG 2014, Sledge 2014). In uterine and endometrial cancers SERMs are less utilized, (Burke 2003, ACS 2014b,c). Tamoxifen has shown some efficacy, however the Product Information does not list endometrial and uterine cancer within the indications; these are included in the Precautions section (eBS 2014, ACS 2014b, c). Highly selective SERMs are being developed to reduce off target action and improve safety profile, through exploiting the receptor subtypes. (Jordan 2004, Maximov 2013). However biological agent based therapies for breast and uterine cancers (Fabian 2005) make the future for SERMs unclear. Issues in the development of PKWT PKWX: Indications: PP needs to be strategic in the selection of indications to pursue. This will dictate not only the size of the treatable population and the amount of clinical data required for the registration dossier but also potential return on investment. It will also play a significant part in whether the compounds are listed on the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) PKWT and PKWX both have shown high selectivity as well as good safety and clinical outcomes in women of all ages compared to current SERMs and establish these compounds within an already crowded market. First, PP can position development of a ‘one tablet for both breast and uterine indications for all ages’. Although this will mean a complex and costly clinical development plan, it entails a potentially a larger population to treat due to the wider indications. Second, PP may take a different approach aiming for a specific indication such as the ER positive breast cancer in post-menopausal women, but limiting the treatable population. It is worth noting importantly that there are no SERMs with approved indications for uterine or endometrial cancer, despite phase II trials (Munster 2006), which indicates a potential gap in the market. PP could launch the first SERMs indicated for ER-positive uterine cancer. PP will need rates of ER positive uterine cancer to determine the available market to ensure return on investment and determine any potential competition through patent searches. The third option is to enter the market leveraging the structural novelty of PKWX active metabolite, with improved outcomes and safety. This may provide a compelling case for prescribers to switch treatment options. Efficacy PKWT and PKWX have both shown good clinical outcomes for both breast and uterine cancer. They are also highly selective, which is an important consideration so that off-target action is minimised which responsible for the safety profile of the current SERMs (discussed in Safety section) A consideration for prescribers is the secondary effects of oestrogen treatment. SERMs have been shown to be effective against osteoporosis, keeping lipid profiles favourable, aiding in the reduction in symptoms of menopause, cardio-protectivity and risk prevention of cancer (Maximov 2013, Munster 2006, Pickar 2010). PKWT and PKWX must show some of these positive secondary effects to be competitive. Prescribers will not switch to SERMs which can lead to the same outcome but leave a patient worse off e.g. from loss of bone minerals or exacerbation of menopausal symptoms. Length of treatment with SERMs such as Tamoxifen can be up to 10 years to ensure optimal clinical outcomes for patient (ACOG 2014). PP needs to investigate whether PKWT or PKWX requires the same significant period of treatment to achieve clinical outcomes. Safety Due to the pharmacological action of SERM’s acting as either agonists or antagonists at the ER, negative secondary effects can occur. SERMs safety profile includes development of endometrial abnormalities, increased risk of endometrial cancers, pulmonary venous thromboembolism’s and increased incidence of stroke (Pickar 2010, Qin 2013). PKWT PKWX have been found to have better safety profiles, due to the higher selectivity for breast and uterine ER’s, both acting as antagonists at these receptors. Tamoxifen has agonistic properties at uterine tissue which is linked to its use increasing the risk of uterine/endometrial cancers (Yilmaz 2013). However no information has been provided on the adverse event profile known to date and no animal data on long term use associated with treatment length of current SERMs. Market Share and Market Advantage: ‘Tamax’ is a recognised brand, (first patented 1978) with an established market; it is now the preferred treatment for breast cancer in pre-menopausal women. ‘Pro-tam’ which has reportedly an improved safety profile over the originator ‘Tamax’, already has an established brand and market. PP may become a direct competitor and will require a significant point of difference to change prescribing habits of clinicians. The market advantage within the breast cancer treatment arena may be the improved safety and clinical outcome; however PP needs to consider whether it wants to produce a ‘me-too’ compound. As a SERM to treat uterine cancer specifically, it would be a first. PP should consider pursuing compounds specifically into this new market, especially if there is the added advantage of treating breast cancer. Again PP should consider the structural novelty of the PKWX metabolite as well as improved safety and clinical outcome as a market advantage to attract clinicians and gain some ground in the ER-positive breast cancer market. Regions in which Tamax has been launched needs to be obtained, so PP can determine if there are any new markets, and if there are regional specific factors such as the PBS. Pricing strategy and treatment indications will be important in these markets. Investment Costs As part of the review process there needs to consideration of the level of return on investment. PP need to be sure that if development goes forward they have a treatable population and potential to gain market share or market advantage. PP may wish to consider attempting to out-license the compounds if the development costs prove too much of an investment. Legal: PP-Legal has flagged potential PKWT patent infringement by HCH. The associated legal proceedings may add significant costs to the development budget and also effect development timelines. ‘Pro-tam’: Potential Patent Infringement? HCH is launching ‘Pro-tam’, a prodrug that is claimed to be metabolised into ‘Tamax’. PP-RD have analysed the metabolite and found it to be PKWT. PP-Legal advises pursuing this as a potential infringement by HCH on the PKWT patent and to ensure appropriate legal action is taken to avoid any adverse impact on further development of PKWT. PP-Legal have suggested undertaking the following steps: Review the ‘Pro-tam’ priority date to ensure that it is dated after the PKWT priority date (25 April 2002). If the ‘Pro-tam’ patent does have a priority date prior to 25 April 2002: PP-Legal will review the ‘Pro-tam’ patent to determine any grounds to challenge its validity or navigate around the patent. Applying for a patent on PKWT for uterine cancer. This will require negotiation of a licensing agreement with HCH. PP transfers its efforts to the development of the more novel PKWX. If the patent for ‘Pro-tam’ was lodged after the priority date for PKWT, PP has grounds to pursue patent infringement and attempt to block the ‘Pro-tam’ launch by lodging a request for an interlocutory injunction. This will allow PP to restrain the allegedly infringing actions by HCH until settled in court (IP Australia 2012). The justification would be based on the ‘Pro-tam’ patent not meeting the novelty criteria as the chemical structure of ‘Pro-tam’ is listed as part of the PKWT claim scope (IP Australia 2012). HCH legally can patent the prodrug, but at the point of metabolism, the PKWT patent is infringed. PP-Legal have previously determined PKWT does not exist in published prior art. A patent on a prodrug and its metabolites is only valid if all conditions of patent validity are met. The ‘Pro-tam’ active metabolite structures should therefore be captured in the claims. If the PKWT structure is not listed and the PP-RD can provide evidence that PKWT is the active metabolite, there are grounds to claim falsification of aspects of the patent, as HCH has not disclosed all claim details into the public domain, thus invalidating the patent (IP Australia 2012). Here the emphasis is on HCH proving the case otherwise. PP-Legal suggests creating a further portfolio of surrounding patents for maximum protection of PP intellectual property and allow for further development of the SERM pipeline. The ‘Tamax’ patent has since lapsed, however, for completeness, PP-Legal have provided potential actions for PP to still patent PKWT if the Tamax patent was still valid. The original patent claimed a single isomer structure, which is not PKWT, nor was it described as racemic. The existence of other isomers was not common knowledge at the time of the patent application so HCH were likely unaware that the structure listed in the claim scope had isomers. Between 1996 2000 journal articles were published discussing the discovery of isomers of compounds that may confer improved efficacy and safety profiles. Despite these articles being in the public domain, HCH did not move to patent any potential isomers of ‘Tamax’. If a compound is described as a racemic mix in the aspects and that patent is challenged, court rulings in previous legal cases have stated that it is considered common knowledge that racemic mixtures may contain isomers with different properties and that it is obvious to try to separate these. Considering this information, PP could move to patent the PKWT isomer, on the basis that Existence of different isomers of compounds was not common knowledge at the time of the original ‘Tamax’ patent so the argument of obviousness that the patent would cover the PKWT isomer cannot be made by HCH (IP Australia 2012). If HCH had claimed a generalised formula for ‘Tamax’ type compounds, PP would be infringing (Harris 2013). Information on differences in efficacy and safety of undiscovered isomers has been in the public domain since 1996 and HCH still did not move to patent any isomers. Separation of isomers is possible by skilled practitioners since technological advancements have occurred. Conditions of patent validity can be met by PP – PKWT is novel as it is not described in prior art, it is inventive in that it requires a person skilled in the art (i.e. not obvious) to separate the isomers and it is potentially useful in treating disease (IP Australia 2012). Development Recommendations: PP needs to consider which indications to pursue –as it will affect the size and cost of the clinical development programme. The improved clinical outcome and safety, as well as selectivity, can provide market advantage in both indications. However, a breast cancer ‘me-too’ drug may not be successful in obtaining a PBS listing which is crucial to success of a medicine in the Australian market. The PKWT patent infringement proceedings may affect development schedules and add significant cost. Whereas PKWX has a novel structure that is not subject to patent infringement, so this may be the better compound to pursue to avoid the legal route Word Count 2118 References American Cancer Society (2014a) Breast Cancer http://www.cancer.org/> (Accessed Aug2014) American Cancer Society (2014b) Uterine Cancer http://www.cancer.org/> (Accessed Aug2014) American Cancer Society (2014c) Endometrial Cancer http://www.cancer.org/> (Accessed Aug2014) American College of Obstetricians Gynaecologists (2014) Committee Opinion – Tamoxifen and Uterine Cancer. www.acog.org> (Accessed Aug2014) Burke TW Walker CL (2003) Arzoxifene as therapy for endometrial cancer Gynaecologic Oncology 90 (2003) S40–S46. (Accessed Aug2014) eBS (2014) TGA Nolvadex Product Information. Astra Zeneca 2013 https://www.ebs.tga.gov.au (Accessed Aug2014) Fabian CJ Kimler BF (2005) Selective Estrogen-Receptor Modulators for Primary Prevention of Breast. CancerJ Clin Oncol 23:1644-1655 (Accessed Aug2014) Harris, T., Nicol, D., Gruen, N. 2013 Pharmaceutical Patents Review Report. Commonwealth Government of Australia.http://www.ipaustralia.gov.au/pdfs/2013-05-27_PPR_Final_Report.pdf> (Accessed Aug2014) IP Australia (2012) Pharmaceutical Patents Review: Background issues and suggested Issues Paper. Commonweath Government of Australia www.ipaustralia.gov.au/pdfs/Background_and_Suggested_Issues_Paper_PharmaReview.pdf> (Accessed Aug2014) Jordan VC (2004) Selective estrogen receptor modulation Concept and consequences in cancer. Cancer Cell Volume 5, Issue 3, p207–213. (Accessed Aug2014) Maximov PY,Lee TM,Jordan VC (2013) The discovery and development of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) for clinical practice. Curr Clin Pharmacol.2013 May;8(2):135-55 (Accessed Aug2014) Munster PN (2006) Arzoxifene: the development and clinical outcome of an ideal SERM. Drug Evaluation March 2006, Vol. 15, No. 3 , Pages 317-326. (Accessed Aug2014) McMeekin DS, Gordon A, Fowler J, Melemed A, Buller R, Burke T, Bloss J, Sabbatini P (2003) A phase II trial of arzoxifene, a selective estrogen response modulator, in patients with recurrent or advanced endometrial cancer. Gynecologic Oncology 90 (2003) 64–69. (Accessed Aug2014) Qin T, Yuan ZY, Peng RJ, Zeng YD, Shi YX, Teng XY, Liu DG, Bai B Wang SS (2013) Efficacy andtolerability of toremifene and tamoxifen therapy in premenopausal patients with operable breast cancer: a retrospective analysis. Curr Oncol, Vol. 20, pp. 196-204; (Accessed Aug2014) Pickar JH, MacNeil T Ohleth K (2010) SERMs: Progress and future perspectives Maturitas Volume 67, Issue 2, Pages 129-138, October 2010 (Accessed Aug2014) Sledge GW, Mamounas EP, Hortobagyi GN, Burstein HJ, Goodwin PJ Wolff AC, (2014) Past, Present, and Future Challenges in Breast Cancer Treatment Journal of Clinical Oncology, Vol 32, No 19 (July 1), 2014: pp 1979-1986 (Accessed Aug2014) Yilmaz S,Gà ¶nenà § IM,Yilmaz E (2014) Genotoxicity of the some selective estrogen receptor modulators: a review. Cytotechnology.2014 Aug; 66(4):533-41.(Accessed Aug2014) Personal Reflection Starting this assignment I had no real knowledge of SERMs- I had a basic understanding of the use of tamoxifen so building background knowledge was a prompt learning curve. However, such events are to be expected in all professional practice and simply enable improvement. When I think about the writing and the researching of this assignment, I can say that I found the intellectual property section the most challenging and intellectually stimulating area, as it resonated with my detail oriented nature and love of deconstructing/reconstructing events and processes. I enjoyed the researching of case law and the practicalities of patents. I always enjoy doing the literature searches and review of papers, and the chance to delve into the legal terminology pushed me outside my comfort zone. The drug development side of the assignment was not so interesting to me. I would put this down to the word limit not really allowing for much exploration of the area. I would have liked to explore market share and the epidemiological basis and strategy of selecting an indication/s for these compounds in a much more detailed review. Because of my work sits strongly in the population health area, this early end of the development pathway is not really something that I am asked to consider often. However from the viewpoint of building a personal knowledge base and being able to provide answers to my direct reports regarding the drug development process in a more holistic manner, this assignment has been of help. Search Strategy Keyword Wildcard Search: PubMed Google Scholar SERM, oestrogen receptor modulator, ER breast cancer, ER uterine cancer, ER endometrial cancer, tamoxifen, hormonal cancer, Obtained literature centred on these wild card searches. Reviewed the literature to build a knowledge base to write the first half of the assignment. Reviewed 9128 course notes to finalise ideas. Keyword Wildcard search: Google Google Scholar Pharmaceutical Patents, enantiomer patents, isomer patents, isomer legal cases, patent portfolios, patent law Australia, pharmaceutical patent cases Australia, intellectual property law Australia, Obviousness, inventiveness. Obtained literature and websites centred around these wildcard searches, Reviewed the literature to build understanding of IP law and previous case law. Referred back to Australian IP law to check proposal was sound. Reviewed 9128 course notes to finalise ideas.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Sophocles Antigone - Creon and Antigone :: Antigone essays

Creon and Antigone Antigone   Sophocles   When a dictator dies, his image and fame dies with him, but when a self-sacrificing individual dies, their legacy begins.   This statement is true because oppressed citizens do not fondly mention a mean ruler, such as Creon from Antigone, after he passes away.   Yet a martyr, such as Antigone, also from the story Antigone, is remembered for her self-sacrificing deeds.   Creon will not be remembered because he did not allow Antigone to bury her dead brother Polynices, and decides to execute Antigone for trying while Antigone’s legacy will live on because she has the courage to defy Creon, and chooses to sacrifice herself for Polynices' honor.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   First, Creon is a tyrant.   His rule will not be remembered for many reasons, one being that he desecrates family honor.   When a son or father dies in battle, they are carried home to be properly buried by their families.   Eteocles, Antigone’s other dead brother, is a patriot and is buried because he fights for Thebes.   However, Polynices is not buried because he rebels against Thebes.   Creon leaves Polynices’ body out to be attacked by dogs and vultures.   This angers the people of Thebes because family honor is very important to them.   Therefore, the people of Thebes will not remember Creon because of his offensive deeds performed while he is on the throne.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Second, Creon will be forgotten because he decides to execute Antigone.   Her punishment is to be locked in a blocked cave until she dies.   Although later on in the story, Creon does decide to free her, it is too late.   The people of Thebes are astounded at the fact that Creon would even conceive of such a horrible punishment.   Antigone acted on family honor, which is understood. Therefore, his people will forget Creon.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Third, Antigone is a wonderful example of a martyr.   Her legacy will live on, and inspire many other rebels to stand up for their beliefs.   Antigone dared to defy the King’s threat of death to bury her brother, and shows true family pride.   The people take pity on Antigone, and feel that she should be let alone. Haemon, Creon's son and Antigone's betrothed, states how the people of Thebes feel. â€Å"On every side I hear voices of pity for this poor girl doomed to the cruelest death†¦for an honorable action-burying a brother who was killed in battle†¦has she not rather earned a crown of gold† (

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Russia and the Lack of Tax Collection :: International Politics Economics USSR Essays

Russia and the Lack of Tax Collection The economic crisis in Russia has become an important topic within the international political and economic world. The virtual collapse of the Russian economy has had a domino effect in terms of decreased economic stability in a number of countries, especially countries in Latin America. Now the problem Russia, the United States, and basically every major country in the world need to solve is the problem of how exactly to get the Russian economy going again to prevent not only the world economy from collapsing, but also to keep Russia from ceasing to exist. According to Daniel Treisman, in his article "Russia’s Taxing Problem," Russia’s inability to collect taxes, amongst other things, is quickly becoming "†¦the greatest threat to it’s economic and political stability," (Treisman, 1998). Tax collecting, a viable source of revenue needed by most countries in order to successfully run a state, almost does not exist in Russia. I plan to present in this paper th at tax collecting and lack thereof is not the only problem causing this crisis, but it is a serious one. It is mainly caused by corruption and the lack of the government to successfully overcome this corruption to help save their country from economic and political disaster. The economic system in Russia has undergone some significant changes in the last decade. (For the purpose of this paper, I am going to attempt to explain a little of what I understand to be important changes in the economy that effected tax collection). Early Russian economy was characterized by strong governmental control over the activities of enterprises. In other words, the state sought to control all aspects of society, including the economy and allocation of monies to businesses and private citizens and the fixing of prices to promote economic stability. This, however, led to the increase of "black" markets where prices were often inflated and also led to wasteful practices of resource use (Alexashenko, 2-3). The economy of Russia has taken a dramatic turn from this characterization, and has attempted to become an economy characterized by more production control by private sector enterprises with less government involvement (Alexashenko, 3-6). This gives private companies and i nvestors more control over their monetary gains and losses and makes it easier for the rich to become richer and the poor to become poorer. It also hurts smaller businesses because they do not have the influence or control of the bigger enterprises.

The Prisoner. A Fragment by Emily Bronte Essay -- Literary Analysis

At the start of the nineteenth century, religion and science coexisted as one. The idea behind the creation of man and nature was seen as the work of God, thus the issue of religion and science were one in the same. As the Victorian era progressed, there was an emergence of scientific thinkers that began to question the creation and miracles of God, which in turn led to turmoil within the Victorian society. What Victorian society had was a constant clashing of ideals between the emerging science group and the religious believers. People did not care to listen to each other’s beliefs, which led to an overall lack of mutual respect among the groups. It is through Emily Bronte’s The Prisoner. A Fragment that the tensions based on religion can be seen through the male and female characters who represent the clashing groups in Victorian society. Religious believers in the Victorian society had amazing fervor for the word of God and believed that everything that occurred in life came from the hands of God. A good majority of the works written during the Victorian era expressed a belief that through the endurance of pain and suffering on Earth, the individual will be forever rewarded in Heaven. The Prisoner. A Fragment, by Emily Bronte is a clear demonstration of this belief as a heroic female prisoner demonstrates hope that her creator will save her after she endures her unjust punishment. The speaker in this work is a man visiting the prison, which is located in his father’s castle. He narrates the story looking back on his visit to the prison. He makes the audience aware that he never really cared nor did he pay attention to the lives that were slowly coming to an end in the crypts. He makes a comment to the jailor and is given a re... ...hinking along with the fall of the Church of England. Emily Bronte, through her male and female characters in A Prisoner. A Fragment ,is demonstrating the struggle and the feuding that took place between the religious and anti-religious groups that began to emerge during this time. Not only does she represent these two groups, she also makes strong comment on women. It is clear that Bronte is breaking the stereotype of the woman by using a strong female character to demonstrate their power, as well as their ability to lead and be heroes in a social, religious, and political movement that was the center of so much controversy during this era. Works Cited Christ, Carol T., Catherine Robson, Stephen Greenblatt, and M. H. Abrams. The Prisoner. A Fragment. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. Vol. E. New York, NY: W.W. Norton &, 2006. 1315-316. Print.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Vampire Academy Chapter 24

TWENTY-FOUR IN SPITE OF ALL THE training I'd received, all the lessons on Strigoi habits and how to defend against them, I'd never ever actually seen one. It was scarier than I'd expected. This time, when she swung at me again, I was ready. Sort of. I dodged back, slipping out of reach, wondering what chance I had. I remembered Dimitri's joke about the mall. No silver stake. Nothing to cut her head off with. No way to set her on fire. Running seemed like the best option after all, but she was blocking my way. Feeling useless, I simply backed down the hall as she advanced on me, her movements far more graceful than they'd ever been in life. Then, also faster than she'd ever moved in life, she leapt out, grabbed me, and slammed my head against the wall. Pain exploded in my skull, and I felt pretty sure that was blood I tasted in the back of my mouth. Frantically, I fought against her, trying to mount some kind of defense, but it was like fighting Dimitri on crack. â€Å"My dear,† murmured Victor, â€Å"try not to kill her if you don't have to. We might be able to use her later.† Natalie paused in her attack, giving me a moment to back up, but she never took her cold eyes off me. â€Å"I'll try not to.† There was a skeptical tone in her voice. â€Å"Get out of here now. I'll meet you there when I'm done.† â€Å"I can't believe you!† I yelled after him. â€Å"You got your own daughter to turn Strigoi?† â€Å"A last resort. A necessary sacrifice made for the greater good. Natalie understands.† He left. â€Å"Do you?† I hoped I could stall her with talking, just like in the movies. I also hoped my questions would hide how utterly and completely terrified I was. â€Å"Do you understand? God, Natalie. You†¦you turned. Just because he told you to?† â€Å"My father's a great man,† she replied. â€Å"He's going to save the Moroi from the Strigoi.† â€Å"Are you insane?† I cried. I was backing up again and suddenly hit the wall. My nails dug into it, as though I could dig my way through. â€Å"You are a Strigoi.† She shrugged, almost seeming like the old Natalie. â€Å"I had to do it to get him out of here before the others came. One Strigoi to save all of the Moroi. It's worth it, worth giving up the sun and the magic.† â€Å"But you'll want to kill Moroi! You won't be able to help it.† â€Å"He'll help me stay in control. If not, then they'll have to kill me.† She reached out and grabbed my shoulders, and I shuddered at how casually she talked about her own death. It was almost as casual as the way she was no doubt contemplating my death. â€Å"You are insane. You can't love him that much. You can't really – â€Å" She threw me into a wall again, and as my body collapsed in a heap on the floor, I had a feeling I wouldn't be getting up this time. Victor had told her not to kill me†¦but there was a look in her eyes, a look that said she wanted to. She wanted to feed off me; the hunger was there. It was the Strigoi way. I shouldn't have talked to her, I realized. I'd hesitated, just as Dimitri had warned. And then, suddenly, he was there, charging down the hallway like Death in a cowboy duster. Natalie spun around. She was fast, so fast. But Dimitri was fast too and avoided her attack, a look of pure power and strength on his face. With an eerie fascination, I watched them move, circling each other like partners in a deadly dance. She was stronger than him, clearly, but she was also a fresh Strigoi. Gaining superpowers doesn't mean you know how to use them. Dimitri, however, knew how to use the ones he had. After both giving and receiving some vicious hits, he made his move. The silver stake flashed in his hand like a streak of lightning, then it snaked forward – into her heart. He yanked it out and stepped back, his face impassive as she screamed and fell to the floor. After a few horrible moments, she stopped moving. Just as quickly, he was leaning over me, slipping his arms under my body. He stood up, carrying me like he had when I hurt my ankle. â€Å"Hey, Comrade,† I murmured, my own voice sounding sleepy. â€Å"You were right about Strigoi.† The world started to darken, and my eyelids drooped. â€Å"Rose. Roza. Open your eyes.† I'd never heard his voice so strained, so frantic. â€Å"Don't go to sleep on me. Not yet.† I squinted up at him as he carried me out of the building, practically running toward the clinic. â€Å"Was he right?† â€Å"Who?† â€Å"Victor†¦he said it couldn't have worked. The necklace.† I started to drift off, lost in the blackness of my mind, but Dimitri prompted me back to consciousness. â€Å"What do you mean?† â€Å"The spell. Victor said you had to want me†¦to care about me†¦for it to work.† When he didn't say anything, I tried to grip his shirt, but my fingers were too weak. â€Å"Did you? Did you want me?† His words came out thickly. â€Å"Yes, Roza. I did want you. I still do. I wish†¦we could be together.† â€Å"Then why did you lie to me?† We reached the clinic, and he managed to open the door while still holding me. As soon as he stepped inside, he began yelling for help. â€Å"Why did you lie?† I murmured again. Still holding me in his arms, he looked down at me. I could hear voices and footsteps getting closer. â€Å"Because we can't be together.† â€Å"Because of the age thing, right?† I asked. â€Å"Because you're my mentor?† His fingertip gently wiped away a tear that had escaped down my cheek. â€Å"That's part of it,† he said. â€Å"But also†¦well, you and I will both be Lissa's guardians someday. I need to protect her at all costs. If a pack of Strigoi come, I need to throw my body between them and her.† â€Å"I know that. Of course that's what you have to do.† The black sparkles were dancing in front of my eyes again. I was fading out. â€Å"No. If I let myself love you, I won't throw myself in front of her. I'll throw myself in front of you.† The medical team arrived and took me out of his arms. And that was how, two days after being discharged, I ended up back in the clinic. My third time in the two months we'd been back at the Academy. It had to be some kind of record. I definitely had a concussion and probably internal bleeding, but we never really found out. When your best friend is a kick-ass healer, you sort of don't have to worry about those things. I still had to stay there for a couple of days, but Lissa – and Christian, her new sidekick – almost never left my side when they weren't in class. Through them, I learned bits and pieces about the outside world. Dimitri had realized there was a Strigoi on campus when they'd found Natalie's victim dead and drained of blood: Mr. Nagy of all people. A surprising choice, but since he was older, he'd been able to put up less of a fight. No more Slavic art for us. The guardians in the detention center had been injured but not killed. She'd simply slammed them around as she had me. Victor had been found and recaptured while trying to escape campus. I was glad, even though it meant Natalie's sacrifice had been for nothing. Rumors said that Victor hadn't seemed afraid at all when the royal guards came and carried him away. He'd simply smiled the whole time, like he had some secret they didn't know about. Inasmuch as it could, life returned to normal after that. Lissa did no more cutting. The doctor prescribed her something – an anti-depressant or anti-anxiety drug, I couldn't remember which – that made her feel better. I'd never really known anything about those kinds of pills. I thought they made people silly and happy. But it was a pill like any other, meant to fix something, and mostly it just kept her normal and feeling stable. Which was a good thing – because she had some other issues to deal with. Like Andre. She'd finally believed Christian's story, and allowed herself to acknowledge that Andre might not have been the hero she'd always believed him to be. It was hard on her, but she finally reached a peaceful decision, accepting that he could have had both good and bad sides, like we all do. What he'd done to Mia saddened her, but it didn't change the fact that he'd been a good brother who loved her. Most importantly, it finally freed her from feeling like she needed to be him to make her family proud. She could be herself – which she proved daily in her relationship with Christian. The school still couldn't get over that. She didn't care. She laughed it off, ignoring the shocked looks and disdain from the royals who couldn't believe she'd date someone from a humiliated family. Not all of them felt that way though. Some who had gotten to know her during her brief social whirlwind actually liked her for her, no compulsion necessary. They liked her honesty and openness, preferring it to the games most royals played. A lot of royals ignored her, of course, and talked viciously about her behind her back. Most surprising of all, Mia – despite being utterly humiliated – managed to wiggle back into the good graces of a couple of these royals. It proved my point. She wouldn't stay down for long. And, in fact, I saw the first signs of her revenge lurking again when I walked past her one day on the way to class. She stood with a few other people and spoke loudly, clearly wanting me to hear. † – perfect match. Both of them are from completely disgraced and rejected families.† I clenched my teeth and kept walking, following her gaze to where Lissa and Christian stood. They were lost in their own world and formed a gorgeous picture, she blond and fair and he blue-eyed and black-haired. I couldn't help but stare too. Mia was right. Both of their families were disgraced. Tatiana had publicly denounced Lissa, and while no one â€Å"blamed† the Ozeras for what had happened to Christian's parents, the rest of the royal Moroi families continued to keep their distance. But Mia had been right about the other part too. In some ways, Lissa and Christian were perfect for each other. Maybe they were outcasts, but the Dragomirs and Ozeras had once been among the most powerful Moroi leaders. And in only a very short time, Lissa and Christian had started shaping one another in ways that could put them right up there with their ancestors. He was picking up some of her polish and social poise; she was learning to stand up for her passions. The more I watched them, the more I could see an energy and confidence radiating around them. They weren't going to stay down either. And I think that, along with Lissa's kindness, may have been what attracted people to her. Our social circle began to steadily grow. Mason joined, of course, and made no secret of his interest in me. Lissa teased me a lot about that, and I didn't yet know what to do about him. Part of me thought maybe it was time to give him a shot as a serious boyfriend, even though the rest of me yearned for Dimitri. For the most part, Dimitri treated me just like anyone would expect of a mentor. He was efficient. Fond. Strict. Understanding. There was nothing out of the ordinary, nothing that would make anyone suspect what had passed between us – save for an occasional meeting of our eyes. And once I overcame my initial emotional reaction, I knew he was – technically – right about us. Age was a problem, yes, particularly while I was still a student at the Academy. But the other thing he'd mentioned†¦it had never entered my mind. It should have. Two guardians in a relationship could distract each other from the Moroi they were supposed to protect. We couldn't allow that to happen, couldn't risk her life for our own wants. Otherwise, we'd be no better than the Badica guardian who'd run off. I'd told Dimitri once that my own feelings didn't matter. She came first. I just hoped I could prove it. â€Å"It's too bad about the healing,† Lissa told me. â€Å"Hmm?† We sat in her room, pretending to study, but my mind was off thinking about Dimitri. I'd lectured her about keeping secrets, but I hadn't told her about him or about how close I'd come to losing my virginity. For some reason, I couldn't bring myself to tell. She dropped the history book she'd been holding. â€Å"That I had to give up the healing. And the compulsion.† A frown crossed her face at that last part. The healing had been regarded as a wondrous gift in need of further study; the compulsion had met with serious reprimands from Kirova and Ms. Carmack. â€Å"I mean, I'm happy now. I should have gotten help a long time ago – you were right about that. I'm glad I'm on the medication. But Victor was right too. I can't use spirit anymore. I can still sense it, though†¦I miss being able to touch it.† I didn't entirely know what to say. I liked her better like this. Losing that threat of madness had made her whole again, confident and outgoing, just like the Lissa I'd always known and loved. Seeing her now, it was easy to believe what Victor had said about her becoming a leader. She reminded me of her parents and of Andre – how they used to inspire devotion in those who knew them. â€Å"And that's another thing,† she continued. â€Å"He said I couldn't give it up. He was right. It hurts, not having the magic. I want it so badly sometimes.† â€Å"I know,† I said. I could feel that ache within her. The pills had dulled her magic, but not our bond. â€Å"And I keep thinking about all the things I could do, all the people I could help.† She looked regretful. â€Å"You have to help yourself first,† I told her fiercely. â€Å"I don't want you getting hurt again. I won't let you.† â€Å"I know. Christian says the same thing.† She got that dopey smile she always did when she thought about him. If I'd known what idiots being in love would make them, I might not have been so keen to get them back together. â€Å"And I guess you guys are right. Better to want the magic and be sane than to have it and be a lunatic. There's no middle ground.† â€Å"No,† I agreed. â€Å"Not with this.† Then, out of nowhere, a thought smacked me in the head. There was a middle ground. Natalie's words reminded me of it. It's worth it, worth giving up the sun and the magic. The magic. Ms. Karp hadn't become Strigoi simply because she'd gone crazy. She'd become Strigoi to stay sane. Becoming Strigoi cut a person completely off from magic. In doing that, she couldn't use it. She couldn't feel it. She wouldn't want it anymore. Staring at Lissa, I felt a knot of worry coil within me. What if she figured that out? Would she want to do it too? No, I quickly decided. Lissa would never do that. She was too strong a person, too moral. And so long as she stayed on the pills, her higher reasoning would keep her from doing something so drastic. Still, the whole concept prodded me to find out one last thing. The following morning, I went to the chapel and waited in one of the pews until the priest showed up. â€Å"Hello, Rosemarie,† he said, clearly surprised. â€Å"Can I help you with something?† I stood up. â€Å"I need to know more about St. Vladimir. I read that book you gave me and a couple others.† Best not to tell him about stealing the ones in the attic. â€Å"But nobody told how he died. What happened? How did his life end? Was he, like, martyred?† The priest's bushy eyebrows rose. â€Å"No. He died of old age. Peacefully.† â€Å"You're sure? He didn't become Strigoi or kill himself?† â€Å"No, of course not. Why would you think that?† â€Å"Well†¦he was holy and everything, but he was also kind of crazy, right? I read about it. I thought he might have, I don't know, given into that.† His face was serious. â€Å"It's true he fought demons – insanity – his whole life. It was a struggle, and he did want to die sometimes. But he overcame it. He didn't let it defeat him.† I stared in wonder. Vladimir wouldn't have had pills, and he'd clearly continued to use magic. â€Å"How? How did he do that?† â€Å"Willpower, I guess. Well†¦Ã¢â‚¬  He paused. â€Å"That and Anna.† â€Å"Shadow-kissed Anna,† I murmured. â€Å"His guardian.† The priest nodded. â€Å"She stayed with him. When he grew weak, she was the one who held him up. She urged him to stay strong and to never give in to his madness.† I left the chapel in a daze. Anna had done it. Anna had let Vladimir walk that middle ground, helping him to work miracles in the world without meeting a horrible end. Ms. Karp hadn't been as lucky. She hadn't had a bound guardian. She hadn't had anyone to hold her up. Lissa did. Smiling, I cut across the quadrangle toward the commons. I felt better about life than I had in a very long time. We could do this, Lissa and me. We could do it together. Just then, I saw a dark figure out of the corner of my eye. It swooped past me and landed on a nearby tree. I stopped walking. It was a raven, large and fierce-looking, with shining black feathers. A moment later, I realized it wasn't just a raven; it was the raven. The one Lissa had healed. No other bird would land so close to a dhampir. And no other bird would be looking at me in such an intelligent, familiar way. I couldn't believe he was still around. A chill ran down my spine, and I started to back up. Then the truth hit me. â€Å"You're bound to her too, aren't you?† I asked, fully aware that anyone who saw me would think I was crazy. â€Å"She brought you back. You're shadow-kissed.† That was actually pretty cool. I held out my arm to it, half hoping it'd come land on me in some sort of dramatic, movie-worthy gesture. All it did was look at me like I was an idiot, spread its wings, and fly off. I glared as it flew off into the twilight. Then I turned around and headed off to find Lissa. From far away, I heard the sound of cawing, almost like laughter.